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Druidical Astrology Primer
by Michel-Gérald Boutet

"I praise my Father, my God, my strength, who infused in my head both soul and reason, who, to keep guard over me, did bestow my seven senses, from fire and earth, water and air: the mist and flowers, the wind and trees, and much skilful wisdom has my father bestowed on me." (Taliesin, Song of the Macrocosm)

Part I - Dulioi, the Elements

Taliesin speaks of his senses having been formed from "the elements and sub-elements" Taliesin names four elements; fire, earth, water and air. Much like the Greek Hierophants and Brahmans, the Druids counted five elements with "ether". This fifth element composed the higher matter of the Uindobitu where the higher beings reside. The gods partook of this essence, so in earthly terms, it does not enter in the composition of the gross matter of this world although it can be perceived in the form of mist. Therefore, the Druids for this plane of existence distinguished four main elements adding a fifth subtle quintessence comprising the greater ethereal whole. For each of these elements, a ruler, a race, and an age are given.

The underlying structure of the oghamic system is modelled on the elements through its series of five. In Cosmic terms, the four cardinal points along with the centre point, the Medios. But much more than this, the Welsh and Irish texts hint at a two set system of elements similar to the one found in the Upanishads. These are the subtle elements (sound, touch, form, taste and odour) and the gross elements (earth, air, water, fire, ether). Take Taliesin for example, his conception of world order is very much in tune with that of the Upanishads, which is; up, down, before, back and around or sideways. "I praise my Father, my God, my strength, who infused in my head both soul and reason, who, to keep guard over me, did bestow my seven senses, from fire and earth, water and air: the mist and flowers, the wind and trees, and much skilful wisdom has my father bestowed on me." Taken from the Bardic lore of Taliesin (Song of the Macrocosm), this excerpt clearly identifies the four elements along with the Druidical concepts of the soul. In this christianised evhemerised version, the term "God" barely masks the name of Guton Uxellimon who was the Druid's god who is above. Interpretations from the Irish cosmography give Falias for Earth, Gorias for Fire, Findias for Air, and Murias for Water. The four basic elements are combined in threesomes, the first three are the gross elements; Earth, Water and Air who in turn are recombined with the nobler part, Fire. This was termed by the ancients as the "Harmonic Law of Nature". This harmonic combination was in turn governed by the three states of matter; Hot, Tempered and Cold. At the end of the four Ages, Aes (Yugas), typical of Vedic cosmology, the universe is destroyed by fire. The spirit of Brahmà (Brennos Dagodeuos) sleeps in the cosmic ocean before the world is created anew. The four Yugas combine to form an aeon, Aeiiôn (Kalpa). Each of the four Ages are named after the dice throws of Rextuarios, the Lord of Time, or "Chronocrator" in Greek. The first is the Krta Age, the Golden Age also called the Age of Satya, the Age of Truth; then the Age of Tretà, the Age of Dvàpara, followed by the Age of Kali, the present Age, a time of great difficulties when spirituality is at its lowest.

Pursuing and this interpretation, on the Celtic side, we have the Flatstone for Ualia (South), the Spear for Goria (West), the Sword for Uindia (North), and the Cauldron for Moria (East).

Henceforth in Gaelic cosmogony, Flatstone for the element Fire to the South = Fire-stone (Tepnolicca) or Stone of Might (Uallicca), Spear for the element Earth to the West = Lancia or Gaisos, Sword for Wind, the element of Air to the North = Smertus, Scotta or Cladibos, and Cauldron for the element of Sea and Water = Qorios/Parios to the East.

If we combine these with the four Druid masters we get; Marouesos, "of Great Knowledge" = Fire, Esdratis, "Having the Way" = Earth, Isciatis or Uisciatis, "of Fresh Water", or Uescios, "Well Dressed" = Wind, and Semiatis, "the subtle" = Water; and Uratis, "the Pure, the Fire", twin of Esdratis for Ether.

Why would Uisciatis or Idsciatis (Water) be linked to Air and Semiatis or Semiuis (Uiso = breeze) to Water, does this make sense?

It does make sense if you consider the dynamics of the relationship of air and water; breeze, dampness, fog, mist and rain in relation to freshwater. Thus, Idsciatis (Water), master of Air-wind, and Semiuis (capricious breeze), master of Water-waves, act together. This leaves Marouesos, master of the Fire-stone, with Esdratis, as master of directions with the Spear combining both the flint-stone and the yew pole. Uindia, to the North (Tarim basin), was also called Uindapia, "White Water" for its salt flats. In this situation, Salt is from dried up waters. Moria, the Aral and Caspian Seas, is also subject to dry winds.

The play for the drama of the elements is therefore set in myth as well as in time and space; Talamu = Earth (West) with Tepnes or Aedus = Fire (South), and Auer = Air or Auentos = wind (North) combined with Aua or Isca = Water (East). These were for the four corners from whence blew the four winds, hence the four elements (Dulioi). This grouping of the elements in a threesome seems to go as far back as the Proto-Indo-European level that had it as: Earth, Skies and Waters, and Fire being the breath of the gods (R.V. 10.121, v. 7, 8, 9).

The order: 1 - Xea: Xdonios, "Earthy" = Earth; 2 - THoi: Thepnon = "Fire"; 3- Pui: Water; and 3 - PHia: Auella/Auentos = "Wind", and 5 - XSae: Uxson = "Ether".

Fire should therefore be regarded not as a fourth element, but as an agent or energy force transforming the three main elements of Earth, Water and Air. Fire + Earth = metal and rock; Fire + Air = flame and light; Fire + Water = gas and vapour; and Fire + Fire = breath and heat as in ‘Cosmic Heat’. ‘Cosmic Heat’: Order and Truth were born from heat as it blazed up. From that was born night; from that heat was born the billowy ocean. From the billowy ocean was born the year, that arranges days and nights, ruling over all that blinks its eyes. The Arranger has set in their proper place the Sun and Moon, the Sky and the Earth, the middle realm of space, and finally the sunlight (R. V. 10.190, v. 1, 2, 3).

Elements as divinities: Alisanos = Stone, Talantio/Tailtiu = Earth; Circios = Wind; Aedus = Fire; and Lero = Waves.

The fifth element (Pimpe dulioi = 5 elements), Ether, had the meaning of plenty/empty as in the ying-yang concept. In Celtic terms, this was expressed as Uxson and Nemos/Namos or by Couiocanton\Couocanton (Void-Plenitude), and it expresses the precipitation of the four elements in their movement and transformation. In this situation, the Dagda's Cauldron of Plenty (Water) takes on its full meaning. "If you understand the term Ether (Aither) the same way it was taken for the Greeks; "the superior regions of the air or sky", which also stood for "sky" and "heaven", then it would have to be Namos or Nemos . Nevertheless, the Druids of Antiquity had a notion of interstellar void or vacuum, therefore the term would have to be: Couiocanton (punning with the antinomous Couocanton). This notion was also well understood by the linguists Walde and Pokorny" (J. Monard 1994).

The Couiocanton and the Couocanton or Nemos and Uxson: The element of Ether representing the whole, the centre of things in its dual nature of plenty and void. It is the Medion or Mide, the centre of All. In it, all opposition is consumed. It is symbolised by the Snake and the Egg. It is the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end. Which comes first? ..."I am a Salmon in a pool", for the turn of the wheel of time and return to the primordial Golden Age. The Couiocanton and the Couocanton: The element of Ether representing the whole, the centre of things in its dual nature of plenty and void. In this return to the first Vedic Age on Kalkin's return, the avatar of Vishnu will transform the minds of people into pure and flawless crystal, and will be awakened at the conclusion of a night thus giving birth to a new race of humans.

In the creation myths of the Rig Vedas, it was said that the first Man was divided into many parts in order to make the world. From his mouth came the Brahmin (Druides), his arms were made into the Nobles (Uletoi), from his two thighs came the people (Broges), and from his feet came the servants (Uassoi). The Moon (Medua) came from his mind; the Sun (Belios) from his eye. From his Mouth came Indra (Lugus) and Agni (Aedus); from his vital Breath the Wind, Vàyu (Circios) was born. From his Navel came the Atmosphere (Meneuos); from his Head the Heaven (Nemetos); from his Feet the Earth (Talantio), and the regions of the Sky (Tourenos) were made from his Brain.

The Planets & the Elements

In the Ptolemaic system, the planets are also linked to the elements. Because of the Sun's course through the zodiacal constellations each planet is endowed with an orb. In this case, the first position in the order belongs to the Sun. According to Ptolemy, the Sun in relation to its element Fire (South), produces heat that dries up the atmosphere. The higher it climbs on its path to the summer solstice the hotter it gets. Therefore the closer you travel to the zenith the warmer it gets. This is why the South was likened to a Fire-stone by the ancient Druids.

The Moon is principally a source of dampness. Its proximity to Earth makes it capable to lift up vapours and great bodies of water. It was believed by the Ancients that the outer-space bathed in a vapour of mist. This was referred to as the heavenly waters which in turn fall back to Earth in the form of rain. Combined with the Sun's celestial fires, it was said to bring putrefaction and rot, when it wasn't a warm damp air in the winter. In triplicity the Moon's corresponding zodiacal element is Cancer for Water.

Mercury for Ptolemy, produces drought much like Sun, but it also produces moisture like the Moon, each being equal in balanced. Because of its proximity to the Sun, Mercury, absorbs humours which cause quick reactions. Quite an appropriate description for a planet associated to quicksilver. Mercury's zodiacal signs are Gemini and Virgo, for Air.

Venus is more temperate than Mercury, damper that Mercury but drier than the Moon. Since it is warmer than the Moon it carries much more fire and spirit than the mindly Moon. For this reason Venus was made the planet of Love, Medicine and Art. It's corresponding signs are Taurus and Libra for Earth and Air.

Mars was seen as colder and drier than the Venus. Its main element comprising of Iron. Its metal was therefore Iron as in mineral and steel. Mars was coupled with Sun (Fire) in that it produces anger and war. The zodiacal signs attributed for Mars are Aries (Fire) and Scorpio (Water) in reference to the smithing and tempering of swords. In effect, because of its position lower than Jupiter stimulates wind activity (war).

Jupiter was the main co-ordinator or arranger for the balance of moisture and dryness. It had no special quality other than that it was seen as a sign of effervescence in connection with bubbly springs. It therefore had a connotation of good health and medicinal properties. It's elements were therefore the same as for Mars; Fire (Sagittarius) and Water (Pisces), but having a beneficial quality in that it co-ordinates movement.

Saturn it was believed, was away from Earthly influence, thus making it out of the reach of vapours. Saturn has the remaining signs Aquarius (Air) and Capricorn (Earth). It was thought to be at the doorway of the kingdom of the dead which is the underworld linked to the notion of agriculture. Wind was therefore its predominant element. Saturn was also thought to be much colder than any other planet, hence it's strong association with the coldest wintry months.

The two remaining entries, eighth and ninth in the ogham, though not bodies or planets, were of the invisible abstract realm and were thought of as ethereal planes in relation with the Moon. These were the lunar orbitary nodes Caput and Cauda Draconis, which nevertheless, were counted separately with the planets.

As careful observers, the Druids were probably aware of the existence of Uranus, but since it was at times barely visible, they classified it in the oghams with the rest of the marginal phenomena such as the invisible planets and the lunar nodes. This strengthens the ethereal qualities of Draconis.

Last but not least is Earth or Crundion in Gaulish. It partakes of all four elements in that its core is of Fire from which volcanoes spew forth their lava. It is then made up of Water, Earth and Air. The Ancients had a curious notion of an Earth surrounded by the fires of Ether, a blanket of cosmic lunar water covering the denser sea waters and dry grounds of the earthly plain/plane.



THE SPEAR: the spear of directions pointed to the four corners of the Earth. Not surprising that the cross and circle was the principle Earth symbol along with the swastika or Petrucoros in Celtic. Earth was under the patronage of the female goddesses led by Danu or Anna the grandmother goddess of the Celts. The stone as an earthly symbol was also in relation to man's destiny and the three Fates. Earth's symbolic numbers were in sets of threes and fours giving a total of seven for Saturn and Earth's acme. All this in relation to the seven stars of the Pleiades. Also linked to Earth symbolism is the number 12 given to mountains, this because of the twelve zodiacal constellations guiding man's destiny. It was said that the first mountains of Ireland were ruled by the Tuatha Dé Danann who would not hesitate to fight in order to preserve the land. Land was often deified as it is shown in the account of the Milesian landing in Ireland, Eriu and her Earth sisters went to them requesting that their names be given to the land. Amairgen promised the goddess Eriu that her name would be given along with those of her sisters Banba and Fotla: Eriu (West), Fotla (Uotala = under earth" punning with Uodolos = "West"), and Banbha (Banua = "sow", banouia = female gender"). These names have been used by the Irish poets over the centuries as lyrical names. Of the Earth goddesses, the most honoured remains Tailtu (Talantio), a daughter of the Firbolg king of the Great Plain who became foster mother to Lugh Lamhfada. Her name was given to Tailltinn situated between Navan and Kells. The Earth element, linked to the notion of beauty, health, well-being and materiality was therefore in relation to the activities of the third function. Lia Fail, the Stone of Destiny served to mark power and might in respect to royal dharma. There were two separate stones called the Lia Fail. The first one used at Temuir (Tara) roared with joy at the touch of the foot of a rightful king. The second one was used at the coronations of the Dail Riada kings of Alba. Its use was continued by the Scottish kings until the stone was stolen by Edward I of England (1272-1307) and taken to London.


THE SWORD: the sword that cuts through as fierce as the northern winds. Each of these winds under the general patronage of the Gaulish god Circios, or Manannan, were supervised by one of the Druid Masters. We have seen how the notion of fire was linked to inspiration, let it be understood that wind was spirit. Then there was the Druid's mist (Ethereal Air) in relation to protection and dissimulation.

Winds were also seen as resulting from the Druidcraft and seen as the product of incantations. Druidical breath was a means through which they achieved the illusion of shape-shifting. This illusion was ether set temporarily or definitely. In prosaic terms, the Druid's breath was said to change men into stones. The Carnac alignments were given as proof of this. The Ocean's breeze mixed with Sun and heat was also in relation to magic and mystery. Another poetical name for this was "Manannan's cloak of invisibility". When over land, such as on battlefields, it was seen as "Morrigan's death veil". Wind came as the vital breath of primordial Man as one of the first dedma (dharma). The winds came forth as great horsemen onto the battle field. In Hindu myths, the Asvins were the Dioscuroi horse-gods, twin sons of the Sun and Mare Goddess. These were the Celtic Eporedoi, the many Eochaidhs (Iuocatus) or sons of Epona Magosia. From the West, "Wind Speed" = Vàyuvega for Air, ruled by Varuna; from the North-West came "Wind Force" = Vàyubala, ruled by Vàyu, Wind; from the North came "Wind Destroyer" = Vàyuhà, ruled by Kubera; from the north-east came "Wind Circle" = Vàyumandala, under the rulership of Soma, Water; from the East came "Wind Flame" = Vàyujuala, ruled by Indra; from the south-east came "Wind Seed" = Vàyuretas, ruled by Agni, Fire; from the South came Breeze, death of Wind, ruled by Yama; from the south-west came "Wind Disk" = Vàyucakra for Earth, ruled by Surya, the Sun...and again, the West ruled by Varuna.

Winds were therefore symbolising the inspirational and spiritual motivations of the priest class, thus of first function. These acts of magic operate on the mysterious powers of the Moonbeam.

The Druidical Winds (Again the Vedic and Druidic systems overlap with incredible precision):

I- WEST: Uodolos/Eriteros; AEDURINI AUENTOS = Wind Of The Hot Flux, ruled by ruled by Ogmios Varuna for Vàyuvega = Wind Speed;

II- NORTH-WEST: Eritoustos; UALARNI AUENTOS = Wind of Strength, also CIRCIOS and CORNOUICOS, Circios Vayu for Vàyubala = Wind Force;

III- NORTH: Toustos; UOCLETII AUENTOS = Wind from Under the Sky Vault, ruled by Medros Kubera for Vàyuhà = Wind Destroyer;

IIII- NORTH-EAST: Aretoustos; ANACANTI AUENTOS = Wind of the Circle, Wind of Calamity, SUISDACIOS/UUIDDACIOS (Feadag), the Whistling-wind or Plover-wind, ruled by Medua Soma for Vàyumandala = Wind Circle;

V- EAST: Areteros; CUTI AUENTOS = Fiery Wind, GERSONOS (Gearran), the Cutting-wind or Guelding-horse-wind, ruled by Lugus Indra for Vàyujuala = Wind Flame;

VI- SOUTH-EAST: Aredexsiuos; GIIEMONI AUENTOS = Wind of Buds, GOBACIOS, the Biting-wind or Dogfish-wind, ruled by Aedus Agni for Vàyuretas = Wind Seed;

VII- SOUTH: Dexsiuos; SEMIUISONI AUENTOS = Wind of the Capricious Breeze, ruled by Belios/Donnos Yama (Breeze);

VIII- SOUTH-WEST: Eridexsiuos; ELEMBIUI AUENTOS = Wind of Wailing, Claims, Belenos Surya for Vayucakra = Wind Disk.


The Sea's dedma was in relation to the Otherworld in terms of revelation, intuition and poetical inspiration. These were the Waves of Vaticinations. Water as an energy source was also connected to Druid magic in that is represented Manannan's steeds. The waves were under the spell of the goddess Cliodhna (=? Cliuana) who embodied beauty. Cliodhna was said to reside in the Land of Promise were she was lulled to sleep by Manannan's music. He then sent a great wave to sweep her back to his domain of Tir Tairnigiri (<Teres Toareandegarii = Land of the solemn promise) leaving her lover desolate. From this time on, the "Wave of Cliodhna" was regarded as one of the three great waves of Ireland.

THE CAULDRON (PARIOS//QARIOS): Lustral waters play an important part in the purifying processes of faith and medicine. Lustral water gathered according to specific Full Moons was renowned to have very special qualities. Dew was collected on a cloth of white linen early in the morning mostly in early spring. The clear crystalline waters of sources and headwaters also played an important part as an ingredient in natural medicine. Therapeutical waters were held in such favour that shrines were erected by these pools. Just by the number of votive offerings uncovered at the headwaters of the Seine river dedicated to the goddess Sequana, one can only guess on the importance water played in natural medicine.

Water nymphs were the object of a very widespread and popular cult. These were generally referred to as the Nexai. Again, the springs and sources are all in relation to health and beauty, both are Apollonian in symbolism. Irish myths tell us of the Well of Segais from which sprang the Boann river. Another famous example is that of the name of the Bourbon dynasty, a name going back to the Celtic root Boruo, to "bubble" or "boil". These are the medicinal sparkling spring waters. The most famous cauldron that comes to mind is the Dagda's (Dagodeuos) which had the reputation of satisfying all hunger and restoring life to the dead. In poetical terms, this image can be viewed as the great life matrix, the motherly womb. Archaeology has given us the example of the Gundestrup Cauldron on which are featured the principal Celtic if not Cimmerian. One scene is very reminiscent of the Irish tales concerning the Battle of Magh Turedh, a scene in which the Dagda restores dead warriors back to life. The Water element therefore can be said to partake of the second function, that of the warrior class.


THE FIRE-STONE: Fire in Antiquity was linked to two aspects of its manifestation; earth fire and sky fire. Fire plays an important role in Vedic sacrifice. The Nemeton’s sacrificial fire, the Adbertotepnion or Areterotepnion was rectangular in shape and set to the rising. The fire of the hearth, Agiléca, was circular in shape and set to the setting. And to the South, on the Sun’s path were kept the sacrificial flames, Ures or Lapsai. The flame craft, Agnileceto, over which the flame god Agnilecextis presided, was at the heart of the *Adbertotepnia (nominative/genitive tepnia adberti < tine iobairth), the Fire Sacrifice. The *Tepnodatla (Fire Assembly) or *Urdatla (Flame Assembly) was the climax of the Druidical sacrifice. The most sacred fire was collected from the glowing embers of Holm-oak (TaranosTannos)struck by lightning (LeucesBoleros). The observation of lightning bolts grew into a sophisticated exegesis. In Tuscany, as Diodorus reports, lightning was viewed as an important godly manifestation. Pliny was also very eloquent on the subject and Seneca gave informative detail on the interpretation of thunder bolts by the Etruscan Illyric priesthood. Many of the sigils found there parallel those found in Gaul. It therefore seems that they served a divinatory purpose in relation to godly Fires. The Ancients were convinced that lightning resulted in the collision of clouds provoked by the divine hand of the Thunderer. They believed that lightning forecasted some coming event by bringing down to Earth the godly flame. In this way lightning is in direct link with astrology in that it is seen as an attribute of Taranis (Perkunas or Jupiter). Accordingly, it all depended if lightning struck by day or by night. If it came from Jupiter it was called fulgur dium in Latin and by night fulgur summanum. There is no reason to believe that the Gauls thought differently.

The second bolt from Jupiter (Taranis) was the astrological one, the one he threw on the council of twelve. Twelve gods, called consentes (or again acomplices or consiliarii) that came with the cracking of thunder. This is the one (quo terror incutitur) that struck terror into the hearts of men. But again, if this was not enough, a third bolt was sent down through the accord of a secret conclave of gods (dei superiores et inuoluti). This was a destructive fire (genus quod urit) that changed the destinies of men and states. In its mortal nature, it is called fulmen peremptorium and the number of the assembly of gods for this deed is kept so secret that we can only guess on their nature (superiores). The superiores were indeed the destiny keepers of men if not with destiny itself. This aspect of Taranis is least known in that he, much like Zeus, he was imagined weighing the souls of mortals called kères in Greek. In many representations, he is seen holding scales. This brings him closer to the setting or closing time of cycles as illustrated by the Libra sign, and as linked to Scorpius since it was called "the Scorpion's Claws". Interestingly, this entire motif is somewhat in relation to Bootes, the ploughman (Ariomos), in that he picks up the seething coals with his pliers from the burning tree. "Arruns dispersos fulminis ignes colligit et terrae maeto cum murmure condit datque locis numen." Arruns gathers the fires dispersed by lightning and buries them in earth whispering dark formulas by placing these grounds under divine protection.

In the myths, fire plays the predominant part as both an element and a god. In the Vedic hymns, the Fire god Agni, the equivalent to the Celtic Aedus, among his many forms are his brothers Vaisvànara (the digestive fire within all men), Grhapati (the household fire), Yavistha - parallel to the greek Hèphaistos-("the youngest", Fire when it has just been produced from the wood), Pàvaka ("the purifier", particularly the fire of lighting), Sahahsuta (son of strength"), and Saucika ("needle-sharp)". The ritual is opened by Vàyu and closed by Agni, God of the domestic fire.

Circular Fire:

AEDUS (God of domestic fire) - axial round fire of the hearth;
Object: to preserve the flame - no sacrifice performed;
Latin equivalents: Aedes Vestae or Ignis Vestae;

Of this world, perpetually kept by women - when out can only be re-ignited with a fire-bow - ensures stability and permanence on a site - not inaugurated since symbolising sovereignty of Earth - presided by the three Brigantiai.

Square Fire:

AGNILE CEXTIS or TANNOS TARANIOS (Flame Grip or Fire of Thunder) - square fire of the Nemeton;
Object: destined for ritual offerings in relation to the heavens - emplacement determined in function of the cardinal points;

Of the otherworld, the four corners of heaven - the first duties of the seer is to determine the Laroi nemi that are the regiones caeli or ‘regions of the sky’ in Latin, inaugurated in four parts by the Wind God (Circios), - each part is looked over by one of the Four Masters.

The Giant and Man's Creation

Giants are most often sky spirits residing in the lower regions. These underworld spirits were said to reside underground and in the Ocean's depths or abysmal regions. They are of a godly nature and are in relation to the higher elements; Clouds, Rain, Snow, Thunder, Lightning, Air and Wind. The Giant of Jack and the Beanstalk, in the children's tales, partakes of this nature.

In Celtic mythology, the primeval Green Man was called Yspaddaden Pencawr (Spadonios Pennocauaros), possibly the Uath of the Irish Myths and the Gargantua of the French legends. This Gargantua was in fact the Gaulish Garganos, which means "the rough one", an alias of the Dagodeuos/Dagda. The term Cauaros is for "giant" and Pencawr means the "Chief Giant". Giants of course are ever present all along in many of the Celtic myths and legends. "Giant seems to be a metaphor for distinguishing a personage above the ordinary", Peter Berresford Ellis goes on to add that "in later legends Fionn Mac Cumail is termed a "giant", while Olwen is daughter of Yspaddaden the Giant". In the Arthurian cycles the Green Giant, much like Uath Mac Imoman with Cuchulainn, challenges the hero Arthur (Artaios/Lugus), as Cuchulainn (Lugh's son), to have him cutoff his head or else have his removed. This of course echoes back to the old creation myth in which the Giant's body is cut up in pieces and used to build-up the Earth. In Norse myths, "the first Man and Woman grew out from the left armpit of the giant Ymir, while from his two feet the race of frost giants was engendered." In the Vedic scriptures, the giant Yama, a hybrid or hermaphroditic being, gives birth to the first human couple. The Dagda in the form of Ruad Rofhessa (Roudios Rouesos) had a gigantic cauldron which could hold whole goats, sheep and swine and a ladle large enough to hold a man and a woman. In the early I.E. traditions the Giant is killed by three gods who proceed to construct the world from its body. "They used his flesh for the soil, his bones for mountains and stones, his hair for vegetation and his blood for the Sea. From the dome of his skull they formed the Sky, giving it to four dwarfs to raise high above the Earth, while his brains formed the Clouds. The race of dwarfs bred like maggots in the body of Ymir (Yama\Yspaddaden), and came out of the hills and rocks when the world was created".

Caesar mentions that the Gauls claimed, "on the authority of the Druids, that their whole race is descended from Dis, lord of the underworld." Before the arrival of the Sons of Manos on the earthly plane/plain, the Druids taught that the souls of mortals transmigrated from the celestial spheres, originating from the Pleiades group with Maia at the head of her seven sisters. The Seven Brothers were in the wintry region of the Ursa Major star group. Taliesin, in the poem "Primary Chief Bard", claims that his native country is the place of the Summer Stars". The Book of Invasions reminds us that the gods ruled Ireland as worldy kings until about 1700 BCE. While others say they were taken by the Gaels and forced into retirement around 3303 BCE. Dead gods slept in the Sidh mounds in eternal peace. Kronos, the Greek father of the gods did this also. The Irish bards believed that the Tuatha Dé Danann and the ancestral sprits, had come from the stars, so bright and so learned were they. The Irish cycles on their part, inform us that Cesair the first woman was the daughter of Bith (Bitu = world) and a granddaughter of Nectanos. It tells of Fintan (Uindosenos = "the White Elder) and of Ladhra, who sail to Ireland to escape a flood after having received an oracle from the divining sticks. The Christian monk called it "taking advice from an Idol". I take that this refers to the ancient astronomical tree zodiac called the Prinnion.

Spadonios/Yspaddaden's body
Anatla/Anail (spirit, vital breath) Auentos/Gaeth (Wind)
Ambirateia/Imradud (thought, mind) Neblos/Nel (Cloud)
Dricsma/Drech (face) Grannos/Grain (Sun)
Ulasnos/fuil (blood) Mori/Muir (Sea)
Colanis/Colaind (body) Talamu/Talamh (Earth)
Ascurnon or Cnama/Cnaimh (bone) Clocca/Cloch (Stone)

Table: The Elements of the Macrocosm and Man's Body in relation to the Creation Myths

The Elemental: Dwarves and Fairies

The elementals are the elementary spirit beings who animate the basic constituents of matter and who are governed by the Law of Nature (Rextu Adgenias). Dwarves (Corsos, Corr) are said to have emerged from the mineral realm, and are often said to be found around large boulders, mounds, and megaliths. Pucas were gnomes or goblins. They were mischievous and sprite little beings from underground. The term is akin to the Old Norse Puki, the English Puck and the Norman-French Pouque. In Norse mythology, the Dwarves are held responsible for supporting the sky over the heads of men. Much like the fair and dark giants, there are fair and dark elves. The dark elementals are responsible for creating chaos and upsetting world order. As for Fairies, they are reputed to be found around ponds, watercourses, riverbanks, lakes, and spring-heads. These are the river-goddesses, the tutelary divinities of Europe's great rivers and their many sources. In Gaulish, they were termed Nexai, or Niscai in Celtic (Niscas, plural. accusative). Then we have the mythical sea-creatures, Mermaids and Mermen termed muirgen (Morigenos/-a = sea child) in Irish. These are very frequent in Celtic lore. Half human and half fish, they partake in the preserving of the World's memory and intelligence. They are often responsible for bringing up hidden secrets such as the keys of divination. The water elementals, both on Land and at Sea, all share in the lunar life energies of the Cosmic Mind. They therefore play a great part in the healing processes of the body and the mind.

Part II: Manuterai Renduion, The Astral Houses

"The twice six houses of the stars shall weep that their hosts (the Seven Planets) jump their tracks".
(The Prophecy of Merlin)

Astral Houses and Lunar Mansions

Astral Houses

The twelve equally divided sectors of the zodiacal sphere are called "Astral Houses". This is an Antique symbolical concept having little bearing with modern astronomy so these should be taken independently. In the Druidical equal House system, Midheaven falls in the IIIrd, IIIIth and Vth Houses, which are in Sagittarius, Capricorn and Aquarius. The points in the IIIIth and VIIth Houses (Capricorn & Aries) are the most significant. Planets entering Houses, influence these when they are in conjunction with one of the cusps. The first cusp is located between the 5th and 10th degree while the second cusp is found between the 20th and 25th degree. In each House a cusp is marked by a tree. The Celtic name for cusp was Prennos or Uidus as with the Oghams.

Things to know about the Houses:

-The Ascendant is the main cusp of House I.
-Each House represents an aspect of personality or sector of activity.
-the Earth Houses are active (IIII,VIII,XII);
-the Fire Houses are lively (III,VII,XI);
-the Water Houses are finalistic (II,VI,X);
-the Air Houses are relational (I,V,VIIII).
-Each House is ruled by the resident planet.
-Houses are opposed in pairs and completed by opposites.

Equal Houses:

- These divisions are therefore regarded as "Planetary Houses" in which the seat of a planet's greatest influence is presumed. But for astronomers this old idea raises two difficulties:

1. The planets known by the Ancients were only five. Even with the addition of the Moon, of the Sun (that has been sometimes and wrongly regarded as a planet), and the Earth (not recognised as a planet, although Druidic astronomers knew its sphericity and named it Crundnion = the Sphere), they don't number twelve; main reason why some planets were assigned repeatedly to several houses. Some astrologers regarding the star Arcturus as a planet included it in the planetary category while others added another Earth calling it Antiearth.

2. Long-cycled outer planets (Jupiter and Saturn) are "lagging" in each zodiacal house after many years of "absence"; conversely, the inner planets (Mercury and Venus) run through all houses once or several times a year. For example, the visiting tour of Mars - first outer planet - throughout the zodiac takes more than one year. Therefore, "Planetary" assignments for the zodiacal houses are strictly conceptual; this is the reason why planetary influences should be regarded as a spiritual concept.

The following describes preferably another system of attribution in relationship with data from Irish Goidelic mythology.



- the above name for these houses is asserted in Ancient Iueriu (Ireland); very likely, that there were other collective names elsewhere in the other insular or continental countries of Antique celticity as it is hinted in the regional lores.

- Planet names include the five ones observed as such in Antiquity, plus Sun and Moon. With some risk, Uranus and Neptune, not spotted in Antiquity but felt, except Uranus perhaps, which could be mentioned too.

- Planet names are the current ones as the ancient Celtic names are known at least for Sun, Moon, Venus and Saturn. The others were found abbreviated in the Book of Ballymote.

Note that the Druidical Houses begin with Libra, as Birth (House I) and not with Aries which becomes Marriage (House VII).


House I:

- LIBRA: BIRTH (Foundation): life, appearance, the self, the physical body and its features;/ CANTLI PRINNIOS: Atramalis Manios (Maine Athramail "the Father-like") for paternal relations, grandparents, aunts, uncles and relatives: ((Cauda Draconis)) with Etana (Etain 1) ((Venus and Cauda Draconis as Jupiter))

House II: PROFIT (Growth): wealth, acquisition, fortune, finance and truth;

- SCORPIO / SAMONI PRINNIOS: Maternal relations, grandparents, aunts and uncles. Matramalis Manios {Maine Mathramail, "the Mother-like"} ((Mars & Caput Draconis)).

House III: BROTHERS & SISTERS: (Brotherhood) communication, vitality, prowess, and fine voice;

- SAGITTARIUS/DUMANNI PRINNIOS: Manios Ollogabion (Maine Gaib Uile, "of All qualities") for children: ((Jupiter)).

House IIII: PARENTS, MOTHER & FATHER: (Parenthood) education, security, happiness, relations, residences;

- CAPRICORN/RIURI PRINNIOS: Manios Minocuros (Maine Mingor, "the Sweetly Dutiful") for Longevity: ((Saturn and Arcturus)).

House V: PROGENY, SONS & DAUGHTERS (Filiation): creativity, nature, range of intelligence and issues;

AQUARIUS/ANAGANTI PRINNIOS: Aiba "friendly mien" (Aobh, or Etain Aillil's daughter, Etana for concord: - Etaine 2, "daughter of Alpillis {Aillil and Etaine 1rst} and wed to Medros {Midir, "the Clever"}), a brother of Dagodeuos (Dagda) - thus uncle then foster father of the Ogios Maqos||Maponos {Mac Og, "the Young Son"}((Jupiter again or Uranus ?)).

House VI: HEALTH & SOCIETY (Misfortune): relatives, operation, enemies and injuries;

- PISCES/OGRONI PRINNIOS: Aiunia "durable" (Aoife) the second Fate and sister; then Iuocatus (Eochaid Faidhleach father of Medua {Medb} or Dergodeuos {Da Derga, "the Red God" alias Roudios Rouesos/Ruadh Rofhessa i.e. the Dagodeuos/Dagda, "the Good God" and in particular, his Dits Ater, Father Dis aspect leader of souls}, for Spirit {with the destruction of the physical body} and losses: ((Jupiter and Uranus)).

House VII: MARRIAGE (Association): partners, journeys and wife and husband;

- ARIES / CUTI PRINNIOS: Mogocuros Manios (Maine Mogor, "well in charge") for brothers ((Mars)).

House VIII: DEATH (Finality): exile, rupture, hostility, mental and physical ills, destruction of old patterns and start of a new cycle;

- TAURUS / GIAMONI PRINNIOS: Mou Epirtos Manios (Maine Mo Epirt) "above described" who is also called Melissogutacos Manios (Maine Milscothach, "the Honey-tongued")...for lovers: ((Venus)).

House VIIII: TRAVELS (Pathworking): wisdom, the path of Life, preceptor, general fortune and moral values (Dedma||Derma = dharma);

- GEMINI / SEMIUISONI PRINNIOS: Apprentice, Trade (Profession). The tradesman is Andouios Manios (Maine Andoe "the non-slow", i.e. the Swift one) ((Mercury)).

House X: HONOURS (Actions): achievement, Trodma (Karma) or activity in general, preceptors, means of livelihood, prowess, courage and fame;

- CANCER / EQUI PRINNIOS: Queen Medua (Medb) is the mother ((Moon)).

House XI: FRIENDS (Services): fellowship, giving and sharing, wealth, gain and money;

- LEO / ELEMBIUI PRINNIOS: Alpillis Ambactos or (Aillil/Amaethon or later Old Mac Donald son of Don) is the father (Sun).

House XII: ENEMIES (Fate, Fortune): antagonism, privacy, expenses, losses, sins, bodily destruction and Dits (Moksha):

- VIRGO / EDRINI PRINNIOS: Arua "furrow" (Arbha), third of Aillil's daughters,((Mercury again, or Antiearth)).

-Each house has its ruling planet or Lord who combines or associates with others thus forming Iugona or yokes. when strong planets with high acmes intrude or are kept in houses with weak acmes, they also loose in power. In turn, when weak planets are entertained in strong houses, they gain in power. The highest acme, Uertomu, is 50 and the weakest being 5.

-Cnabetiosirai ac Dregiai "Comets and Meteors": whenever they show up in any given constellation or are in conjunction with a planet, it spells misfortune. The constellation, House, Mansion, or Planet is therefore in debility. The Comets and shooting stars take 3 acme points away from any planet. For example, in conjunction with Jupiter: (12 -3 = 9). Thus, Jupiter is in regression or in debility.

Here are the House Rulers with their acmes:

House I, Birth, Cantli Prinnios (Libra): Venus = 8 + Cauda = 6, totalled acme = 14; Yoke: Endiugon, "Ultimate or Ignited Yoga".

House II, Profit, Samoni Prinnios (Scorpio): Mars = 25 + Caput = 5, totalled acme = 30; Yoke: Alnoiugon, "Yoga from Beyond".

House III, Brothers and Sisters, Dumanni Prinnios (Sagittarius): Jupiter = 12; Yoke: Riioiugon, "Free Yoga".

House IIII, Parents, Riuri Prinnios (Capricorn): Saturn = 7 + Arcturus = 4, totalled acme = 11; Yoke: Elloiugon, "Chief Yoga".

House V, Progeny, Anaganti Prinnios (Aquarius): Saturn = 7; Yoke: Tunccetonoiugon, "Yoga of Fate".

House VI, Health, Ogroni Prinnios (Pisces): Jupiter = 12 + Uranus (Cenos) = 5, totalled acme = 17; Yoke: Ectoiugon, "Exterior Yoga".

House VII, Mariage, Cuti Prinnios (Aries): Mars = 25; Yoke: Aruoiugon, "Furrow Yoga".

House VIII, Death, Giamoni Prinnios (Taurus): Venus = 8; Yoke: Inregoiugon, "Yoga of Gifts".

House VIIII, Travels, Simiuisoni Prinnios (Gemini): Mercury = 10; Yoke: Roudotouisaciiugon, "Yoke of the Red Ruler".

House X, Honours, Equi Prinnios (Cancer): Moon = 50; Yoke: Aurinioiugon, "Golden Yoga", or "Yoga of Riches".

House XI, Friends, Elembiui Prinnios (Leo): Sun = 16; Yoke: Uxsoiugon, "High Yoga".

House XII, Enemies, Edrini Prinnios (Virgo): Mercury = 10 + Antiearth = 4, totalled acme = 14, (or when with Shooting-star: -3 = 7 or 1); Yoke: Equoiugon, "Balanced Yoga" or "Livestock Yoga".

Strengths: (Nertoi)

(Acmos = "powerful", Drunos = "strong", Suarios = "free", Uanos = "weak")

Moon: 50 = Acmos;
Mars: 25 = Drunos;
Sun: 16 = Drunos;
Jupiter: 12 = Drunos;
Mercury: 10 = Suarios;
Venus: 8 = Suarios;
Saturn 7 = Suarios;
Cauda Draconis 6 = Suarios;
Caput Draconis 5.5 = Uanos;
Uranus 5 = Uanos;
Arcturus 4.5 = Uanos;
Antiearth 4 = Uanos.

The Zodiacal or Planetary Houses are prosaically called Bruigh na Boinne (Mansion of Boann < Boanda = "lasting" or of Boandos, the river Boinne) in Irish or Brugden Boandas -or Boandi in Celtic. When it was first occupied by Nectanos, it was claimed by the Dagodeuos but was finally taken by Ogios Oinogustios, the First Chosen Youth. This hill fort is ruled by the Sun and is set on the Eastern horizon. On the Western Horizon, one finds Tegos Donni (House of Donn), House of the Dark-one where the Sun retires. To the Northwest we find the Aericotegia (Airtheach or Aircthech) for "house of care", ruled by Venus (Reiia). It is surrounded by the otherworldly plain of Magh Aircthech, "the Plain of the House of Care", also known as the Bron-Bherg < Brugno Bargii or "akward [warrior]'s sorrow", a hospital and one of the main halls of Emain Macha. These are the Red Plains of Magosia (Macha), the battle-fields of the Sun (Cauda) and Moon (Caput). Heads cut off in battle were known as ‘Macha's acorn crop’. Red is the colour symbolising death and the otherworldly domain. Ruadh Rofhessa, an aspect of the Dagda in relation to Druidical eschatology. On the North-western axis is Venus or the Celtic Brigindo and is often associated with healing, fertility, smiths, poetry and the arts and the sciences of medicine.

And Finally, to the Southwest we have the Lugu Balion, "estate of Lugus\Lugos", Teite Corbmac or Tegos Corbomaqi which is ruled by Mercury of the Magh Ciuin < Ciuones Magos or the Carantomagos (= the Mild Plain or the Plain of friends, family). Anagantios is traditionally linked with Aquarius for "friends". A complete description of the astrological Houses and Plains will be given in chapter IX. In whole, the mythological drama played by the main characters, that are the Cronocrator or Aedus, the fire-father, sacred space and matter of the mother matrix Matrona, the humanised aspects of these archetypes; Medua for drunkenness is the lunar mother figure and Alpillis, the elf, the father figure, and finally, the many human stereotypes typified by the many astrological characters >(the 7 Maines).

The 7 Maines

The seven Maines (Manioi) represent the planetary characters which typify those born under the respective astral signs. In the Ogham, Manios is to be found under "M" (Muinia\Muin), the vine tree, just before "G" (Gortos), the ploughing field, "NG" (Gnatos\Gnata), sons and daughters, "SD" (Sdiras), stars, and "R" (Rextu), law order. The Vedic Ashtakavarga or eight point system of prediction relates of human personalities classified with the nine planets or spheres, a family of seven excluding the two parents (mother = Moon, father = Sun) and sisters. The three Etaines in the Old Irish scheme (3 Etaines for the Moon's phases). This Maine or Manios plays an important part in other I.E. cultures, and he pops up in Norse as well as in Indian myths. Tacitus mentions a Tuisto, father of Mannus as the ancestor of the Germanic race. Tuisto seems, much like the Dagda to take on a two-fold character. In the Vedic scriptures he is referred to as Manu the demigod, father of the race and primeval ancestor. Many puns can be made with this name, for example; mana = "thought, intelligence", manios, "soaken" (for ship's boy), manos = "man" (human being), and manos = "very good". The name "Maine" also points to a Mainter, Muintir (Manutera = house) thus corroborating its link to the concept of astrological houses. The name is very ancient and stems from the proto-I.E. language. It originally was *Dheghom- a root-word for "earthly creature". It gave rise to the words for "earth" and "man". Hence in Latin the words Humus (earth) and Homo (man). In the most ancient I.E. languages we have, standing for "earth" the Hittite word Tekan, the Sanskrit Ksam-, the Tokharian Tkam, the Illyric Gdam, the Greek Khthon, together with the a Protoceltic *Khdom (whence in celtic Xdonios = Chthonian > Donios = human) plus various cognates in Balto-slavic, Avestic, Thrakish and Phrygian languages - all having the same meaning. For "man, agent" we have the Proto-Celtic Dubnos/Dumnos, cognates of the Tocharian Saumo and Germanic Guma\Gomo.

Here is the list and definitions of the main astral types in the Druidic and Vedic cultures:

The Celtic 7 Manioi and the Vedic 7 main Karakas

SONNOUERTOMU: the Sun's Acme (16)

ALBIIORIX: (Chronocrator), the principal main lord, takes on the vedic Atmakaraka, the highest point or acme in the astral order. Can be replaced by the Sun.

DIUOUERTOMU: the Moon's Acmes (5-6-50)

ETANA: (indiscriminate, of many faces, punning with Etanna = poetry), sister to the seven Maines, she is the Mathramail as well as the Atramail for she sets the Moon's power in the solar realm (when the moon is strong and the sun is weak) and brings strenth to the Sun in the other planetary houses.


MATRA (mother): DIUON/LUXNA, the Moon, house ruler: MEDUA (Medba) (intoxicating), title: MATRONA, "matron", {Matru (mother): Chandra the Moon, Matrukaraka, the mother lord};

ATIR (father): SONNOS/SAUELIOS, the Sun, house ruler: ALPILLIS (Ailill, the elf), title: REXTUARIOS, "Regulator", {Pitar (father): Ravi the Sun, , Pitrukaraka the father lord};

FIRST BROTHER: COCIDIOS, Mars, (acme 25), house ruler: MAROCUROS MANIOS (Maine Morgor, "greatly in charge") is the eldest brother in charge of all maters pertaining to brothers and sisters, {Bratru (brother): Kuja, Mars Bhratukaraka the lord of brothers};

SECOND BROTHER: TARANIS/TECTOS, Jupiter, (acme 12) house ruler: MANIOS OLLOGABION (Maine Gaib Uile, of all gifts), lord of children, {Putra (son): Guru, Jupiter, Putraraka the lord of children};

THIRD BROTHER: LUCETIOS/LUGUS, Mercury, (acme 10) house ruler: ANDOUIOS MANIOS (Maine Andoe, the swift) lord of friends, relatives and cousins, {Gnathi (relatives and cousins), Budha, Mercury, house ruler: Gnathikaraka, lord of relatives};

FOURTH BROTHER: REIIA/RIIA, Venus, (acme 8), house ruler: MANIOS MOU EPIRTOS (Maine Mo Epirt, above description) also known as MELISSOGUTACOS MANIOS (Maine Milscothach, the honeyed voiced), lord of wives and husbands. This Manios is weak and must rely on the aid of his powerful sister Etaine. Sisters: (Venus in Moon), house ruler: ETANA (Etaine as wife), {Dara (wife or husband): Sukra, Venus, house ruler: Darakaraka the lord of spouses};

FIFTH BROTHER: MELNOS/NUCTUROS/UOSIROS, Saturn, (acme 7), house ruler: MINOCUROS MANIOS (Maine Mingor, sweetly dutiful), lord of death and transformation, {Maraka (Death inflicting), Sani, Saturn, lord of death and longevity};

MATERNAL RELATION: QENDOS/PENNOS AMBIOS, Caput Draconis, (acme 5), house ruler: Son; MANIOS MATRAMALIS (Maine Mathramail, the mother-like), lord of motherly relations along with his sister Etaine. This Manios must also rely on the assistance of his strong sister.

ENIGENA (daughter); ETANNA (Etaine, daughter of Etaine 1), {Matru (mother), Rahu, Caput Draconis, house ruler: Matrukaraka the mother significator};

PATERNAL RELATIONS: LOSTOS AMBIOS/ERSA AMBIOS, Cauda Draconis, (acme 6), house ruler: SON; ATRAMALIS MANIOS (Maine Athramail, the father-like), lord of fatherly relations along with his sister Etaine who assists him and his father in the house legislation (Attegiocanis), ENIGENA, {Gnata daughter}; ETANA (Etaine, daughter of Alpillis Ailill, {Pitru (father), Kethu, Cauda Draconis, house ruler: Pitrukaraka the father significator}.


A cusp is a point or apex, that is, a fixed point on the ellipse formed by the arc of the ascending constellation and the Earth's horizon. Therefore, the point where the first stars of a zodiacal constellation rises on the horizon marks the cusp. For determining a birth chart, the Eastern horizon determines the starting point for the Houses. The Houses are determined by the position of the Earth's axis or cardinal points at the time of an event or at the time of someone's birth. Midheaven is found overhead above the highest zodiacal constellation in the Eastern skies.

HOUSE I: Libra, Venus and Cauda, Raco (1st cusp): Coslos (Hazel); Tritios (2nd cusp): Dragenos (Blackthorn).

HOUSE II: Scorpio, Mars & Caput, Raco: Reusmen (Sappy Alder); Tritios: Uernos (Alder).

HOUSE III: Sagittarius, Jupiter, Raco: Qertocos (Crab-apple); Tritios: Salixs (Willow).

HOUSE IIII: Capricorn, Saturn and Arcturus, Raco: Marcos (Vine); Tritios: Alamios (Pine).

HOUSE V: Aquarius, Saturn, Raco: Betua (Birch); Tritios: Squiats\Spetes (Whitethorn).

HOUSE VI: Pisces, Jupiter and Uranus, Raco: Osna (Ash); Tritios: Iuos (Yew).

HOUSE VII: Aries, Mars, Raco: Periarios (Pear); Tritios: Phrinio (Plum).

HOUSE VIII: Taurus, Venus, Raco: Thesmerion (Hibiscus); Tritios: Gabrostos (Honeysuckle).

HOUSE VIIII: Gemini, Mercury, Raco: Xassanos (Sessile Oak); Tritios: Daruos/Deruos (English Oak).

HOUSE X: Cancer, Moon, Raco: Uroica (Heather); Tritios: Lemos (Elm).

HOUSE XI: Leo, Sun, Raco: Thannos\Tharanos (Holm Oak); Tritios: 'Ncaitalis (Reed).

HOUSE XII: Virgo, Mercury & Antiearth, Raco: Etlos (Aspen); Tritios: Nertos (Elder).


The lunar mansions were most readily used by Druidical astrologers to plot chart and make quick predictions, even more so than the zodiacal signs.

In Greek Astrology, the Lunar Mansions were divided into 28 parts into which the Moon's monthly course through the heavens was divided. The Vedic plot divides into 27 nakshatras while Dru-uidic mansions are divided into 6 with 27 or 28 Diriones (Star clusters). These sidereal periods should not be confused with the Lates, monthly calendar days which are synodic. In the Irish scheme (such as the Red Branch), one Là is from Latis (overnight then daytime = nycthemer) and hero punning with Lettos, mansion, castle.

The Celtic lunar month which began from the Full Moon overlapped the zodiacal months with a certain discrepancy. The lunar mansions correspond to the sidereal month, or star month, which is shorter than the synodic month. The synodic month is the interval of time between two consecutive full Moons having a period of 29.53 days (29 day, 12 hours), while the sidereal month is of 27. 32 days (27 days, 7 hours. 43 minutes and 11 seconds). Therefore, every three years an extra Dirio or Star is added to balance the cycle.

Queen Medba and king Aillil owned a marvellous palace. The arching of the house, which was of oak, supported a high-vaulted roof made of three stripes of bronze with a covering of shingles. The plan was made of seven circles and seven compartments from fire to partition. It had oaken rafters with apartments partitioned with red yew and inlaid copper. Most of the walls were made of oak. It had twelve windows with glass in the openings. The couch of Aillil and Medba, with silver frontings and stripes of bronze round it, was in the centre of the house in the royal apartments. In Aillil’s own office, a long silver rod reaching the ceiling leaned against one wall by the partition facing him. This was the wand of authority by which he kept his domain under control. From 27 glass windows, Aillil could observe each of the star-maidens in their daily pastimes. The Ulster heroes went round from one door of the palace to the other, and the musicians played while the guests were being prepared for. Such was the spaciousness of the house that it had room for the hosts of valiant heroes of the whole province in the retinue of Conchobar. This zodiacal palace could have been termed as the Qataira Alpilleios ac Meduas, the palace of Aillil and Medba which Berresford Ellis compares to the 27 Nakshatras of Hindu astrology.

To each lunar mansion, Lettos or Rate whence lios or rath in Irish, its ruler or patron for the first half, and a matron for the second half.

In another version there are two 9 period mansions and two four or five period mansions in the zodiacal sidereal month for luni-solar adjustments. In the Irish sagas there were three main halls, the first Craobh Ruadh, contained nine rooms. This is where the king and his heroes feasted and slept. It is described as made of yew with walls of bronze, grouped around the king's room which had a ceiling of silver supported by bronze pillars decorated with gold. The second hall called Craobh Derg, was the treasure house containing war trophies. The third hall was called the Teite Brecc, and where the weapons of the heroes were kept, for it was ruled that no one should enter the feasting halls armed. Last, was the hostel called

Bron-Dherg, or DaDerga's Hostel, the house of cure, in which the wounded warriors were nursed. Bruden [uindas] Bronias is a euphemism for the Moon Goddess' white breasts.

To the North-east we find the Teite Brecc < Brecta Tegia, "the speckled house" another of the great halls of Emain Macha. It is a storehouse for the warrior's weapons. This House is ruled by Saturn. This is a place of magic and transformation and many word plays can be made with Briccos, Brictos for "speckled", Briccos, Brictillos for "trout mackerel" and Bricta, Bricstia, for "magic". Past Boanda's fortress, to the South-east, we have Da Derga's Hostel or Caer Feddwid. This House is ruled by Mars and is often referred to as "the House of Doom". Set apart from the Moon grid are the two lunar nodes, Lestos Ambios and Pennos Ambios. These are two other of Magosia's halls (Halls of Emain Macha), the two Red Branches, Rouda Croba or Craob Ruadh (Cauda) and Derga Croba or Craobh Derg (Caput).

The following is from indications found in the Irish and Gaulish data bases:


QATAIRAI EMNIOU MAGOSIAS, the Halls of Emain Macha i.e. of the Twins of Macha:

I- QATAIRA ROUDAS CROBAS (Red Branch Mansion) 9 Diriones:

1) NODONS (Champion)-Corona Borealis: Honours, union, ambition;
2) BRESTOS (Split)-Serpens: Achievement, losses, wisdom;
3) LUGUS (Light)-Ophiucus: healing, strength, magic;
4) DAGODEUOS (Good God)-Aquila: Vision, courage, enlightenment;
5) DELUATIS (Form-maker)-Cepheus: Patience, dignity, enterprise;
6) UIACOS, UIACATUS (Ram, Sturdy Fighter)-Perseus: Magnetism, charisma, vigour;
7) COSLOGENOS (Son of Hazel)-Caput Medusa: Seduction, malevolence, initiation;
8) CACTOGENOS (Son of Power)-Triangulum: Measure, science, insight;
9) GREINOGENOS (Son of the Beam)-Auriga: Leadership, guidance, idealism;

II- QATAIRA DERGAS CROBAS (Mat-red Tree Mansion) 4 Diriones:

10) AITUARIOS (Lord of the Hearth)-Pegasus: Nobility, knowledge, steadfast;
11) TIGATEROS (Protector)-Ursa Major: Spiritual, hard-headed, curious;
12) CECTORIOS (Furrow)-Praesepe: Sentimental, fortunate, riches;
13) ORBIOSENOS (Inheritor)-Orion, the Manauitanos (Manx) with Orion's Belt: Ambition, risk of fall, celebrity;

ATENOUXTION (New Moon renewal), the Moon falls out of sight;

III- BRECTATEGIA (The Speckled House) 9 Diriones:

14) BANUA (Sow)-Castor & Polux: Emulation, co-operation, duality;
15) UOTALA (Two-faced)-Canis Minor: Swift, light-hearted, faithful;
16) ERIU (West)-Lepus: Shrewd, Sporty, risks of captivity ;
17) BODUA (She-crow)-Corvus: Tenacity, profit, manipulation;
18) MAGOSIA (Plain)-Boots: Protection, health, gains;
19) MORIGENA (Sea's Daughter)-Crater: Intuition, craftiness, transformation;
20) DANUA (Impetuous)-Coma Berenices: Beauty, splendour, nobility of the soul;
21) CUDA (Secret)-Spica: Elegance, purity, risks of infection;
22) BRIGANTIA (Highly)-Cygnus: Spiritual, Independent, devotion;

IIII- BRUGDEN DERGODEUI (Daderg's Hostel) or BRUGDEN BRONDAS (Hostel of Bosom / Care)

4 or 5 Diriones depending on third year cycle adjustments:

23) UIPOS (Iron-bar)-Leo Minor: Glory, intelligence, arrogance;
24) MOINOS (Treasure)-Lyra: Playful, melancholy, sorrow;
25) BELOCREDMOS (Bright Faith)-Goose (Vulpecula): Initiation, protection, prophecy;
26) BRUUINOS (Energetic)-Delphinus: Return, friendship, youth;
27) CASSIALBIO (Holy Orb)-Hercules: Eloquence, power, resource;
28) AEDIS (Fire)-Lupus: Lustful, bright, sociability

The first 9 signs are ruling signs corresponding to the nine kings of the Upperworld. The cycle is initiated in Libra by the Serpent-bearer. In this first house the Moon is waning and gradually loosing intensity. In the second house, are the protectors of sacred space and instigators of human actions. These are the shape-shifters and transformers. In the third house, the consorts to the rulers of the first and second houses. They symbolise sovereignty and material support. The fourth house deals with Science and wisdom. Uipos and Moinos are the Bulls of days qualified as Ambo, both. They serve to show that both luminaries are coming together in cosmic unity. The remaining three are the Druid sages who preside over the fire sacrifice in honour of Aedis (Agni).

-For prediction techniques please consult the chapter on the Workings of Druidical Astrology (see Moon Grid).

NUMEROLOGY (from the Barzaz Breiz by Hersart de la Villemarqué, mid XIXth c.)

1- OINOS; (Necessity) "No series for number one: sole Necessity, Death father of Pain; nothing before, nothing after."

2- DUO\Uo; (Duality, Opposition) "Two bulls pull at a Hull (loop); they pull, they will expire; see the marvel!"

3- TREIS; (Completeness, Order, Fates, the three stages of Life) "There are three parts to the world; three beginnings and three ends, for man and for oak. Three kingdoms of Merlin, full of golden fruits, of bright blossoms, and small laughing children.

4- PETUAR; (Direction, Conflict, Strife) "Four stones to sharpen, Merlin's grinding stones that sharpen the swords of the brave."

5- PEMPE; (Centred, Water, Earth, Space, Motion, Goddess) "Five earthly zones, five ages in the space of time, five rocks on our sister."

6- SUEXS; (Lighting, Male, Initiation, Enlightenment) "Six little wax babies, vivified by lunar energy; if you ignore this, I know. Six medicinal plants in a little cauldron; the small dwarf (Beccos Ueso\Gwyon Bach) mixes the broth, his little finger in his mouth".

7- SEXTAN; (Path, Quest, Destiny, Doors, Reason, Time, Sons) "Seven Suns and seven Moons, Seven planets, including the Hen (Earth, Cerridwen), seven elements with the flour of the air (Ether)."

8- OXTU; (Sun, Productivity, Air, Fire, Eye, Colours) "Eight winds that blow; eight fires with the Great Fire, Lit in the month of May (Giamonios\Taurus) on the mountain of war. Eight white heifers like the foam of the waves, that graze the grass of the dip island; the eight heifers of the Lady (Boenda\Boand)".

9- NOUEN; (Moon, Mind, Study, Family, Tribe, Generations, Elders and Youths) "Nine little white hands on the table top, near the tower of Lézarmeur, and nine little mothers who moan much. Nine Korrigans (She-elves) in white woollen robes who dance with flowers in their hair all around the moonlit fountain. The sow and her young boars at the lair's entrance, grunting and digging about, digging about and grunting; Little one! Little one! Little one! run to the apple-tree! The Old Boar will teach a lesson."

10- DECEN; (Enmity, Hostility, Enemies, Misfortune, Falling stars) "Ten enemy ships were seen coming from Nantes (Namnetes = enemies): misfortune on you! misfortune on you! Men of Vannes (Uenetoi = "White ones")!"

11- OINODECEN; (Mirror, Circle, Death, Spirit) "Eleven armed priests, coming from Vannes, with their broken swords; in their bloody robes; and their hazel crutches; of them three hundred only but eleven". (300 divided by 11 = 27. 27 27 27 27; one lunar cycle).

12-DUEIDECEN; (Measure, Order, Commerce, Agriculture, Husbandry, Daughters) "Twelve months and twelve signs; last but one, Sagittarius, withdraws his darted arrow. The twelve signs are at war, the lovely Cow, the Black Cow with a white star to its brow, leaves the forest of spoils; in its breast the arrow's dart; its blood flowing; it lows with its head raised; fire and thunder; rain and wind; thunder and fire; nevermore; nothing; no other series!

Part III: Charts and Prediction

The Workings of the Druidical Astrological Base

Things we take for granted: weather forecasts and calendars. Try to imagine living at a time when all these things were coded into the general culture. In fact, the ancients were quick to notice that the further North you went, the longer the Sun lagged in Summer, and that the deeper the Sun sank in Winter. In the northern climates, depending on the seasons, the Sun's rise was not always on the same point on the horizon. In winter time, because the Sun's path is very low, the Sun's rays hit the Earth at a very flat angle. In spring and fall, the solar rays strike the Earth's equator almost vertically, and in summer the arc of the solar path is much more pronounced (Reinhold Ebertin 1973). the Pythagoreans did much to explain this phenomenon in relation to the rotation of the earthly sphere, that is the concept of a sphere with a definite centre. This they learned by direct observation and by taking measures from more northerly latitudes. Unlike its Vedic sister which had no use for these considerations, Druidical astrology and astronomy remains strictly northern. The Celts were experts in the field of northern astronomy. They made use of the many stone circles using poles and staffs to mark the positions of the celestial bodies. The use of the pole, linked with observation of the circumpolar stars led to the idea of the celestial sphere revolving round the Earth on the hinge of its axis. The ratio of gnomon-length is proportional to the time after sunrise, so that, when the ratio is 1:2 or 1:3, that is the time of one-half or one-third of the time in which the ratio is, 1:1 to be precise. The resulting approximation is fairly good in summer, but fails badly in winter when the ratio of the split pole to shadow is reaching its highest noon-value long before the 1.5 cubits (6 hours) have gone by, and never get to the value 1:1.

At first, the 'Y' shaped staff probably had seven notches to indicate the Sun's summer solstice position. Later, a finer gradation was needed for the winter positions. This is probably how the ogham came about. The lowest mark, 'B' indicated the horizon while 'N' mark indicated the cloud roof, 'L' the moonrise, 'S' the sunrise, 'D' and 'Ð' the Moon and stars, 'M' the mountains, 'G' the Sun, and finally the forfedha indicated the acmes of the celestial bodies. Next, the ground was calibrated in order to measure the shadow's length. Lines were traced in a tic-tac-toe grid in order to place a stone marker. This was probably at the origin of the tic-tac-toe game, an 'O' for the Sun and an 'X' for the Moon. This operation was termed by the Greeks as the setting-up of a gnomon. The gnomon as an object is not only a carpenter's square but a sundial-pointer as well. The time of the day can be found by the position and length of its shadow. "The observation of gnomon-shadows will give only a very crude notion of the time of day unless the gnomon is placed so that its axis is parallel to that of the earth, that is, unless the latitude is known. Which in turn implies the clear concept of a spherical earth set in the middle of the celestial sphere. Otherwise the gnomon gives only the time of noon and the solstice to within some five or six days."

Caesar does in fact inform us that the Druids did have this astronomical and geographical knowledge. The next step was to set up the twelve places of power on the earthly grid. Herodotos and Plinius tell of griffin-gods, guarding the entrance of a gold mine from which blew the North-wind. Again, much like the Lion, the griffin is linked to the evening-star or Venus (Reiia). The griffins, in eastern mythology were said to guard the eastern door or eastern frontier of the world at rising point of Sun and Stars. It is therefore natural that they should accompany Venus, the brightest celestial night body after the Moon. During the day, the griffins accompanied the star-lion in pursuit of Donnotaruos the Bull of days and at night guarded the Tree of Life, the mighty Ash. Much of this imagery is found engraved on the Gundestrup Cauldron. I am not at all sure however, if the Gauls have kept much lore on griffins and lions like the Cimmerians did. I do think that they were replaced by the Wildcat and no lees formidable beasts, such as the cocatrix of French folk-tales. No doubt the Cones Andumni or Cwn Annwn, "hounds of the un-world or underworld" gradually replaced griffins and the Wildcat such as the Cat Palug was taken for the Lion. Not to forget of course, the Gaulish "Tarasque de Noves" or Irish Oillphest (Oille = greatness + pheist <beist = beast) for the man-eating monster. These metaphysical beasts brought about ills and death to the country folk through the terrible North winds. These winds blew from fabled caves in which resided the no less fabulous cats. In the tales, these cats to the dismay of the King of the land, take on giant bulls and many heads of cattle. That is, the Celtic World King seen as Old Mac Donald.

A farm in which one finds the livestock, and around which one finds the livestock, and around which one finds the wild game animals of the zodiac. This was a "Farmers' Almanac" such as the text starting, "In days of old a Farmer instructed his son", which enables us to follow a full year's activities on the farm, from the inundation of the fields in May or June to the crops twelve months later, newly harvested, as they are winnowed and cleaned. "This text is some thousands of years before Hesiod, but such calendars would most likely have gone on being compiled."

IUGONTIA, the Planetary combinations

In astrological terms, Iugontia are links between signs and aspects. They underline the key words which help define the positional aspects of the planets in one's chart. For example, cusps or tree signs add meaning to House ascriptions while the Houses define the tropical zodiacal animal signs. Planets of course are the keys to the puzzle of Druidic astrology. In this situation, combinations are tripled times twelve. It would therefore be too long to go over all the combinations. But just to keep things simple, all one needs to know are the House rulers and the planets they represent along with their acmes. Planets can have good, strong, bad and neutral effect. The higher one's acme, the more power one takes from the others. Medua or Moon has the Greatest power. She takes all in all with her two nodes counted as planets more than 61 points. By herself, she takes 50, the highest acme. Her consort the Sun takes only 20 when counting its hidden planet, Antiearth. Mercury, another powerful planet, takes just over 14 when counting its Loka Arcturus. Jupiter also combines to get more power. Its brother planets are Uranus (5) and Sun (16). When combined with Uranus Jupiter gets an acme of 17. When combined with Sun, it gets an acme of 28. And when all combined, it gets 33 for the 33 principal deities. Twenty five is an ideal acme with all elements balanced. Too much power spells havoc and self aggrandisement. Too little, weakness, vulnerability and loss of fate. Therefore, by itself, Mars, with an acme of 25 is considered dynamic. If combined with Sun or Moon it spells trouble. More trouble with Saturn, because it makes it Strongly Inauspicious. But if combined with Jupiter or Venus it is Strongly Auspicious.

Significators of Planetary Rulers:

BRIGA (Strong) or less inauspicious: 1 Moon, 2 Mars, 3 Sun.

MATA (auspicious) or benefic: 1 Jupiter, 2 Mercury, 3 Venus.

ANMATA (inauspicious) or malefic: 1 Caput Draconis, 2 Cauda Draconis, 3 Saturn.

LAGUS (vile) or greatly malefic: 1 Antiearth, 2 Arcturus, 3 Uranus.

The Iuga are yokes or combinations. They combine planetary acmes, and House cusps which are ascendant Significators. The Druidical system makes use of a sidereal as well as a tropical scheme for chart interpretation. Also used are the Lunar Mansion signs.

Planetary Rulers

I MOON: Riga Medua is the embodiment of sovereignty. She is mindful and resourceful. She is energetic and spirited. Medua is Soma, the drink of immortality and youth. As Queen of Heaven, the Queen Bee, she regulates the waters and months. In this, she overpowers hers husband King Alpillis the dwarfly Bumble Bee. She is the mother of the 7 planets, the Seven Manioi. Her constellation is Corona Borealis. Ogham fews M-A for Ama = "Grandmother".

II MARS: First of Queen Medua's sons, Marocuros Manios > Maine Morgor "Well in Charge", as Ogmios Labratios is eloquent and powerful. He is skilled in mantric sounds and sacred literature as well as in yogic practice and the martial arts. He has a sunny countenance and holds Ornos the talking sword of might from Tetros's forge in the Underworld beyond the Sun. His constellation is Hercules. Ogham fews O-G for Ogos = "Pure", "intact".

III SUN: Rixs Alpillis, as Oinogustios, the first choice, represents love, youth and medicine. He has a radiant personality and a handsome appearance. He is kept informed of the worlds event by his four birds who represent the four corners. He rules over the 12 plains and 12 rivers of the zodiac. As Alpillis, he has a ghost-like mien and is found in high places. His constellation is Cepheus. Ogham fews 'Nc-U for Ancu = "fatality".

IIII JUPITER: Second of Medua and Alpillis's Sons, Manios Ollogabion, "Of all Qualities", is Brannos, the red Raven, is possessor of the Wheel of Time and the Thunderbolt. He rides a black Horse called Aeigeion, Ocean, the Rock, in pursuit of the primeval Dragon. He is also in possession of the Cauldron of transformations, the matrix of Life. His constellation is Orion. Ogham fews D-E for Deuos = "god".

V MERCURY: Third of Medua's sons, Andouios Manios, "the Non Slow", is Lugus, the black Raven, is possessor of the Spear of the Sun's Path and the Orb of the Ecliptic. He travels freely by foot with his faithful dog or by boat led by a porpoise. He is master of all arts and performer of many feats. He replaces Nodons as god of the Earthly Plane. His Constellation is Perseus. Ogham fews R-I for Rix = "King".

VI VENUS: Fourth of Medua's sons, Mou Epirtos Manios, "Above Description", looks like a male counterpart of Reiia "the Free one", like the germanic Freya; she could be considered as one of the three simultaneous avatars of Brigantia, with Etanna and Olloueda. She is patroness of poetry, medicine and smithery. Keeper of domestic fires, she ensures, prosperity, health and well-being. As Goddess of Medicine, she presides over midwives nurses and healers. His constellation is Andromeda. Ogham few X-EA, Xoad for Xottus = "Sustenance".

VII SATURN: Fifth of Medua's sons, Manios Minocuros, "Sweetly Dutiful", with Bretos, the "Split". Bretos or Brestos, was like Lugus, half Uomorios and half Toutios Danunas. He is represented by the split snake of the Serpens constellation. He rules over the Earth in place of Nodons who had lost his right hand in the first Battle of Magos Turation. He is deposed as High King after an austere and Spartan rule favouring his Uomorii allies. His constellation is Ophiuchus. Ogham few TH-OI, THoir for Thiros = Earth, Thouer = "Over".

VIII VENUS + CAUDA DRACONIS: Atramalis Manios, "the Father-like", sixth of Medua's sons is Ersos, the "Tail". Ersos, husband of Comlàna and father of the three doorkeepers of Tumeria, Aecuuiros, Tocuros and Tigumoenanos. His constellation is Cauda Draconis, the tail end of Draco. Ogham few PH-IA, PHagos for Phicos = "Tail".

VIIII MARS + CAPUT DRACONIS: Matramalis Manios, "the Mother-like", seventh of Medua's sons is Spadonnios Pennocauaros, Chief of Giants. Spadonnios is Ollouinda's father. He refuses to give her to Coiliacos, the Diviner, a cousin of Artaios. In order to win Ollouinda, Coiliacos must kill his future father-in-law. His constellation is Caput Draconis, the Dragon's Head in Draco. Ogham few P-UI, Peth for Pettia = "Piece", Pennos = head.

X JUPITER + URANUS: Aiunia, "Durable" or Etana, Alpillis's second daughter, one of the three fates with Cenos, son in law of Baloros and father of Lugus. Cenos, the Faraway, was the son of Diuanno Cextis, God of Medicine. He is killed by the sons of Turationos while in the shape of a Boar. Her constellation is the Boar in Ursa Major. Ogam few XS-AE, Maros Xi (Big ‘X’) for Uxs = "Above", Marocu = "Great Dog" (Canis Major).

XI SATURN + ARCTURUS: Arua, "the Furrow" or Etana, the third Fate with Artaios or Matus, the Bear-watcher is Mercury again in his saturnine aspects. He is possessor of the magic wand and is father of magic. He is found in the company of the Maiden (Virgo) and is keeper of the 7 Bulls of Days. Her constellation is Bootes. Ogham few EA, EAdha for Aedu||Aedis = "Fire".

XII MERCURY + ANTIEARTH: Aiba of "Friendly Mien", one of the three Fates, one of the Etanai. Baloros the King of Uomorioi, marries his daughter Etana, Poetry, to Cenos (Uranus). He represents the dark aspects of Brannos as ruler of the Underworld. As the Sun Spot he looses an eye through the sling of his grandson Lugus. Mercury’s constellation is Caput Medusae. Ogham few OI, OIr for Orgos = "Death" or Orbion = "Heritage".


The Sun-grid illustrates the four part plan that the Sun covers in its march with its three principle stations. This is what, on a two dimensional level, the ancients termed as the Sun's Sacred Path. On a three dimensional level, the Sun's height was measured from the horizon line to the middle sky where it peaked at high noon and down again. At the summer solstice, the Sun is at its highest, and during the winter solstice, the Sun follows a low quarter line just above the horizon. Therefore a four part grid would better define the Sun's positioning in the annual skies. Take the Ogham, the sign of the forfedha few, Aemhancoll. The first stroke to your right is the Eastern horizon line, the second marks the middle boundary, the third, the Western boundary, and the fourth the Sun's fall over the horizon line. Then if you take Ferchetne's Stream strand, the diagrams marked sigla # 18, you also have a four part grid pattern which crossed over forms an eight lines grid. The Sun's acme, its highest point is 16 (2 x 8). In Vedic Astrology, these eight lines are called Ashtakavarga for the eight sources of energy, the planets are subjected to. This is to indicate that the Sun sends out rays of influence in areas, places, and grounds that are thus rendered favourable. The Sun beams penetrate all space, influencing the Earth and planets alike. These eight rays therefore act as transits, channelling energy to the seven planetary key points of the solar system. The grid can therefore serve to measure the planetary positions along with the sun's at a given moment in time, as for example one's birth date. In Celtic astrology, the Ashtakarvarga (Ashta = eight + kavarga = acmes) would have been understood as the Oxtuacmoi, the eight acmes. These are to be interpreted as the eight high points of the Sun or the eight sources of energy the planets are subjected to. This of course excludes the Sun since the list of planets (nine with Sun, Moon and its two lunar nodes). In turn, each of these planets makes a planetary house ruled by a Tegodonnos (Lord of the mansion) with a Tegoranda ac magos (a domain with land and field). The Sun's leap over the land's edge is mythicised in the story of Blathnath in love with both Cuchulainn and Fer Cherdne, bard to Cu Roi king of Munster. Munster was traditionally linked with the dead. It was off its coast to the west as seen from the South eastern shore of Eire, not far from Kenmare, that Teich Duinn was said to lie. This being the place of residence of Donn or Donnos "the dark one", and as we have seen, Teich Duinn or Tegos Donni meant "the house of Donn". In one account, the legendary king of Munster Cu Roi is referred to as "King of the World". In Gaul, Albiorixs or Biturixs was king of the World. Let us not forget the Hyperborean king Abaris of Diodorus' account. Henceforth, Albiorixs, Fer Cherdne being his chief bard, harpist, or player of the cithara as Diodorus has it. It now becomes clear that Diodorus' Apollo is none other than Abelios or Belenos in the guise of Cuchulainn maybe (??).

The Sun Grid is the tool with which the Druid-priest builds the power vortex of light energy from the Sun. In order to do so the Druid had to find the centre of all space, generally a flat unwooded area oriented in the direction of the summer solstice sun rise (slightly north-east). The four corners of the world were expressed in highly complex terms, a practice also found with the ancient North-American peoples. The North, to the left, Toustos, Uocleios, was cold and dark and said to be the home of the spirits of the dead and the north wind. The sacred space or Nemeton was set in a specific way as to have the participants facing slightly north-east, their backs to the West, their left to the North and their right to the South. The opening of sacred space, of ritual regularity, was called Iustiios, and ritual law was called Dedma (Dharma). Never were the four corners of the World expressed with the magnificence found in the tale of Cath Magh Tuireadh (Catu Magesos Turation) or Battle of the Plain of the mounds. The four cardinal points, five with the centre, were represented by four Druid Masters who came from the four cities from the islands of the north-western seas from where were brought the four symbols of Power. The otherworldly city of Ualia was situated in the Southern sector. The city of Goria, in the Western sector. Uindia was in the Northern area, and Moria in the Eastern sector. With the Druid Morfessa (Marouesos) of "great knowledge", residing in the land of Ualia, the Druid Esdratis "opportunity, residing in the land of Goria, the Druid Uisciatis (Idsciatis) "fresh water" residing in Uindia, and the Druid Semiatis "the subtle" residing in Moria. All in all, the Sun grid represents the 12 plains cleared by Ogios Maqos (Mac Oc) and the 12 rivers, the gold (Sun) and silver (Moon), the cow herd and the white and brown bulls. The middle space therefore represents the mountains of the Moon and the surrounding the Great Plain (Magosia). In this are featured the Aratron (plough), Arios (landlord), Boucca the Cow, Taruos the Bull, Boucalis the cowherd and Iugon (yoke) which constitutes the wooden structure of yew wood (eburouidu) joining the draft animals (oxen) to the plough.


The Sun grid is the table that registers the astrological computations, the positions of the planets, the celestials houses and lots of fortune. The four-part centre square is devoted to the Moon and its lots and its four mansions, this is the Moon grid. Then the twelve outer squares are devoted to the Sun, its passage in the constellations of the zodiac, and its influence and activity. There are twelve planetary houses and twelve astrological plains peopled by Alpillis, Medua and their Children. And there is a forest of trees, the cusps, with its zodiacal animals.


Colour much like heat was a well understood by-product of white sunlight. The Ancients held colour separation through glass and crystals as a highly magical process, and one way to attain sun power or Sun wisdom. The Vedas mention that "all colours are in the eye", the "eye" of course, being the Sun. The body was the Earth, sight, the World, was fire, the Mind was light, the principle of every self. Therefore, the eye abides in Sun, the eye sees the colours in the heart, for it is said that we know colours by the heart. These colours we know by the heart are the colours of the aura, the colours of beingness. The Gaulish Sun goddess Suleuia or Suliuia was the Western equivalent of Aditya, the Indian Sun goddess. The Ancient Aryans, or I.E., took white light to stand for "awakening" "wholeness" or "holiness", the compared mythologies give many examples of this. This was the traditional colour given to priests (Druids, Flamens, Brahmins). Therefore, colour was seen as a tool for self-realisation. Bards, or poet-musicians were also given the colour white for "inspiration" and "purity".The Uates, Uatolegioi, doctors and technicians were given white for "science" and "healing". Although the ancient Celts were familiar with the spectrum of the rainbow or the projection of colour through glass and crystals, the Colour Ogham gives us a very curious colour arrangement. This code, no doubt having to do with the dyeing of fabrics proper to the weaving of Tartans. The Celts have always excelled in the arts of weaving. Gaul was in antiquity one of the major exporters of fine linen and woollen fabrics. The garb of the Gauls was by no means cheap and crude. The Romans found great comfort during the cold season in Gaulish coats, hooded capes and breeches., and several words about thsese dresses pased into latin. And the Gaulish colours, to say the least, were sobered up to fit the subtle tastes of the Mediterranean peoples. We can almost say that this was truly a victory over the Romans. A victory in the battle of trees we may add. For many dyes were prepared from trees found in the ogham. From the Ash tree as many as three different colours could be prepared; red from its bark, brown from the twigs and green from the flowers. And according to Kaledon Naddair, from the Bracken root came yellow, from the ripe berries of the Privet (with some salt), green was made, from the Spindle tree (with salamonia), purple, from the Blueberry (with alum), purple again, Brown from the root of the Walnut-tree, this before the sap rises, and finally, dark brown from the Blueberry with Nut Galls.


VERY WHITE, WHITE, "All white with Knowledge"; Irfind (Ire-uindos = ultra-white) and Ban (Bônos), Finn (Uindos), Candos, Ballos, was reserved for the priestly caste (Duidical = 1rst function). It stood for Fis. It was also linked to the Airgtheach (Arecandotegos = white house), which was one of the otherworldly islands visited by Bran (Brannos = raven). Uindobitus (Gwynfyd in Welsh and Gwenwed in Breton), the White World, was the heavenly realm in which was set the Uxosedlon, the High Throne and on which sat the Pennos Andumni (the Head of the Netherworld). White study for "knowledge", "godliness", "holiness", "truth", "fairness" and "purity".

LIGHT GRAY, "Grey matter, the Mind"; Leitos, Livid (Loucos), belonging to the second level of the Holy class, the colour of Seers, Priestesses and Pythonesses. This colour is in relation to Epona the horse goddess. The Grey Mare is a powerful psychopomp (leader of souls) and is well attested in Celtic mythology in connection to death and soul migration. In the Irish tales Luachair the Grey is the Druidesse of the forest of Shabh Bloom to whom Muirne, Cumall's wife, imparts her son Demne. Better known is Liath Macha, one of Cuchulainn's two horses, the other being the Black of Sainglenn. It was believed that horses carried the souls of warrior heroes to the Otherworld. According to Kaledon Naddair, Liath or Letos was the colour of old men's hair and beards, a kind of "whitely-grey". Grey was therefore the colour of reflection, as in reflected light and mental processes. Grey, thus stands for Lunar light and mental brilliance.

RED, CRIMSON, BLOOD RED, "I myself am a power in battle, A cause of blood from a hundred chieftains. Crimson is my shield, gold my shield-rim" (Cad Godeu, Taliesin). Roudos, Dergos, Crocnos, Ulasnos (Blood-red). Also representing the second function and the warrior caste, Red is the royal colour, the colour of wrath and destiny. It stands for "death", as for "death on the battlefields". Red is the setting Sun's colour, it is therefore an appropriate symbol for the end of a rule or a dynasty. Mythology is very rich in red symbology. First and foremost are the stories related to the Red Branch, the Ulster Champions of the institution of knighthood. The word Ruadh (Red) is often found with the word Righ (King), thus the Red Branch can also be taken to be the Royal Branch. As a symbol of kingly power we have the Gae-Ruadh, Manannan's spear. And finally, we have the Ridire Ruadh, the red riders who appear to Conaire Mor on his way to Da Derga's Hostel.

RUST, Erc/Ercos (perch red or rufus red), Spiritual or Hidden Truths and Treasures. In many Folk Tales the Perch acts as a deliverer of truths. In Celtic lore Fish represent the soul. Ercos for the colour of the Perch which can be described as "mainly white with red, pink and yellow tinges" (Kaledon Naddair) In deed, Erca or Perca was the old name for the Perch. Rufus red is in connotation to the adjective Dergos/Derg for "mat red". This Ercos colour adorned the clothing of the rich in many shades of reds, greens, and yellows decorated with ornate embroideries and fringes.

FINE-COLOURED, Well-coloured, Sodath (Sudatios); All colours having a delicate or subtle quality or a sun-bright amber colouring. In Druidical terms, the brighter and lighter colours partake in the favourable qualities of light (Sunlight) and the darker hues partake in the more sinister aspects (New Moon). These colours may be termed soft colour (Su-liuio), soft (Suadus) or honey sweet (Sumelis). This is what Merlin, in his Cosmic Conclusion, describes as "the shining Sun shall dim under the amber of Mercury... and the Oceanic Apollo (Moritasgos) shall whip up the clouds".

CLEAR, TRANSLUCENT, TRANSPARENT, pure, clean, Necht (Nectos), for glass and crystals (Quartz) is a brilliant white or clear colour; Takes on the qualities of light's intensity and surrounding hues. This condition of light (Full Moon) is termed as "true", "honest", "genuine" and "clear". These colours are perceived in moonlit ponds on clear nights. The meteorological term was Iuos for "good", "fine", very "distinct". It is therefore by no coincidence if Nectanos, the principle water spirit of ponds and lakes is associated with this colour. His name means "the true, clear and authentic".

TERRIBLE, PURPLE, Terrible, Huath (Uatacos), or Scarlet (Xoccos/Coccos), Burgundy (Xoccolobis/Coccolobis) for Strength, loyalty, queenly, fatality; Is the colour of the Hag or the elderly aspects of the High Goddess Brigantia\Brigindo. Huath is in the sinister and darker hues of the spectrum. This colour was in relation to the goddess Cuda often found with the Genioi Cuculatioi, the Hooded Youths. Kaledon Naddair also identifies this colour as Chorcoir or "purple", Huath as "dark purple" along with other hues such as Rose-red and Scarlet. This colour is truly a Ladies colour, think of the Scarlet Lady!

BLACK, dark, black, Dubh (Dubis) Wisdom, Depth, Application and Purpose. this colour has always been associated with the Druids. In fact it is the colour of Oak bark and nuts, colours traditionally given as signs of wisdom and knowledge. Although terrible, much like the moonless skies, this colour is also in relation to the Underworld (Andumnos, the Non-world) which also carries the etymology of Dubis (dark). The Druid's cloak, his "cloak of invisibility" was often in dark hues, was in a dark tartan (Drongos/Drungos = Troop) or in a dark bull's hide. Dagodeuos the Dagda is the principle figure represented by this colour.

DARK GRAY, CHARCOAL, obscure, Temen (Temelnos/Temellos), Ambition, Promise, Expectation and Promotion. This colour, in the ogham is found in association with Tenes (fire) and Tennos/Colennos (Holly) if not Taranos/Tannos for "holm-oak". This colour is therefore charcoal the colour of the product of the kiln. It can also be taken for the effects of lightning since Taranos is the thunder god. In India, dust-grey or ash-grey was the colour of yogins. Kaledon Nadair gives Temen as the "colour of sunrise". It therefore should be taken as a sign of growing light and celestial fire.

BROWN, yellowish brown and reddish brown, Cron (Qrunos (gdl) or Brunos/Prunos (brt)) and dark-coloured (Donnos) or dark brown, Odhar (Udaros), for Strength, Earthly, Wealthy. The colour brown is one of the most popular and celebrated colours of Celtic lore. The first who comes to mind is the Brown Bull of Cuailgne "which became the object of Ailill (Alpillis) and Medb's (Medua) envy in the famous Tain epic" (P. Berresford Ellis). The astrological implications of this colour are quite clear, the Brown Bull no doubt represents Semorotlio, the warm half of the year and the beginning of Sammos or "summer". This being the growing season, the time of the budding of shoots and blossoms. It represents Man, the humus of the earth in his pastoral activities. This colour is therefore in relation to the Earth and the promise of its fruits.

VARIEGATED, MULTICOLOURED, PIEBALD, SPOTTED, (variegated or markings, Mbracht (Mrectos or Brectos) and Alad (Alatos) piebald or spotted, Wild, Savage and Rustic. These are the colours of camouflage or protection in the wild. The Boar's young bear markings which they loose as they mature and turn to rusty brown or black. This peculiarity did not escape the Druids' eye for they saw this as an esoteric sign of deep meaning. The Boar was the symbol of spiritual might and power and was an attribute of the god Esus. It is also the colour of wildcats, and other terrible wild animals. Kaledon Naddair gives Mbracht as "mirror clearly" and Allaid as "wild, wild creatures the hounds cannot overtake". We know that the cat represents death in the flesh or Time devouring flesh. Alatos or Brectos is the spotted colour of trouts and salmons and, this is a fact well known, the Salmon is a symbol of innate wisdom. The colour can therefore be taken for spiritual development.

BLUE, DARK BLUE or BLUISH BLACK, grey-blue, blue or green, Nglas (Glastos), dark blue or green Gorm (Gormos), and blue (Liuos), Trust, Truth, Splendour, Quietude, Heavenly. Blue is often given as the colour representing the Bardic profession. It seems to be connected to the crafts of cloud gazing and poetry. This colour is in relation to Gobannos the god of smiths and the sheen of steel and burnished metal. This probably due to the tempering of metals in salty water or in blood. It is also in relation to Garanos the Crane, linked to Lero and Manauitanos and the deep blue sea. Blue is abysmal and it stood in ancient times for strength, power, of might well tempered with mercy and justice. And of course, light blue stood for the bright blue sky, brotherly love and godliness.

GREEN, DARK GREEN, resinous, Usghda (Usgdacos), green, (Uiridios or Ugros > Uros) for Healing, Medicine, Technical Science and Crafts. Green is often given as the colour representing the class of producers and craftsmen, that is, the Aes Dana, the People of Art. Herbals medicine was the base of traditional practices in ancient Celtdom. Diancecht, one of the principle gods of the pantheon, was the god of Medicine, and it is said that he kept the secrets to all the medicinal plants as well as the magic involved with their use.

BRIGHT, YELLOW, (Bodios, Eluos, Itos, Melinos), Yellow for Sweet and Precious. this colour served to identify tribal unity within the Celtic folk. Yellow was the most common colour for all tunics. In Gaul, the Roman trade brought many commodities to the markets and this included rare dies such as saffron. In Ireland the leine (Linna = tunic) saffron dye was obtained by fixing of a bit of true saffron in a concoction of urine, poplar and arbutus. The odour was quite rustic!


The moon-shaped mirror was the divinatory instrument of otherworldly communication in Antiquity and thus symbolises reflection in thought and mind for the Moon was the vehicle of mind and Sun the spirit.

The Moon grid is set apart from the twelve Sun signs, occupying the central and foremost position on the Sun grid. It also takes the Northern and Southern positions on the outer Sun path. Thus, the Moon has four squares for each of its major phases; Full Moon, Half Moons and New Moon. This four part house is called Leita Briga. Leita Briga occupies the Mediomagos or "central plain". It is ruled by Medba (Medua), who’s name refers to the sweet intoxication of fermented drinks. A known fact is that fermented drinks affect the mind and that Moon and Mind are of the watery element. Acting with Medua as minor rulers are the three Etains (Etana = poetry) all linked to the Chronocrator. She is an aspect of the triple goddess representing the watery ocean world of art and poetry and in the three stages of womanhood, the three basic phases of the Moon; full, half, and new. As daughter of the light god Diancecht, she becomes wife to Eochaid and gives birth to the second Etana. The third Etain, daughter to Ailill and sister to the seven Maines is said to have been courted by Mider and said to have resided with the Mac Oc. She is therefore to be taken as the symbol for the lunar acme (Diuortomu) as it rises in the Sun's house. Etana then retires in Leita Briga and her totem animal is the Swan. The four Islands of the North of the world; Ualia (North), Goria (East), Uindia (South) and Moria (West) can also be positioned in these four squares along with the four ruling Druid-masters.

Manuscript sources

Annals of Ireland (the Four Masters): CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts: University College, Cork, Ireland; Dublin, Royal Irish Academy, MS 1220.

Book of Ball
ymote: M.S. compiled about the year 1391; Library of the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin.

Cauldron of Poesy: Henry, P.L., The Cauldron of Poesy, Studica Celtica #14/15, 1979/1980; Legal codex H.3.18, dated to c. 1500 CE.

Irish Texts Society. Astronomical and Medical, a Latin version of an Arabic treatise by Messahalah or Mascha Allah a Jewish astronomer of Alexandria, who flourished shortly before 800 AD. MS B II 1.

Lebor Gabàl Erenn (The Book of the Takings of Ireland): Guyonvarc'h, Chritian-J.. Le Roux, Françoise, Textes Mythologiques Irlandais I. Translations and Commentaries, Ogam - Tradition celtique, Rennes.

Astrology & other Sources

Bliss, Edgar. Astrologie Gauloise. (cards), Editions Gendre, Paris.

Brooke Ballard, Juliet. The Hidden Laws Of Earth. A. R. E. Press, Virginia Beach, U.S.A., 1979.

Carnac, Carol. L'Astrologie Celtique. Ed. Primeur/Sand, 1986.

Ebertin, Reinhold. Man In The Universe, An Introduction to Cosmobiology. translated by Linda Kratzsch, Ebertin - Verlag, Reinhold Ebertin, Germany, 1973.

Frawley, David. The Astrology of The Seers. A comprehensive Guide to Vedic Astrology, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, Delhi, India, 1996.

Hutin, Serge. Histoire de l'astrologie. science ou superstition?, Marabout université, Belgique, 1970.

Lindsay, Jack. Origins of Astrology. Frederick Muller, London, 1971.

Monard, Joseph. Dictionnaire celtique/français, Keltia Publications, P.O. Box 307, EH9-1XA Édinbourg, Écosse.

Raman, Bangalore Venkata. Studies in Jaimini Astrology, Sagar Publications New Delhi, India, 1975.

Raman, B.V.. Ashtakavarga System Of Prediction. IBH Prakashana, Bangalore, India, 1981.

Raman, B.V.. Astrology For Beginners. IBH Prakashana, Bangalore, India, 1976.

Tester, Jim. A History Of Western Astrology. Ballantine Books, New York, 1987.

Tucker, William J.. Ptolemaic Astrology. 1962.

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Michel-Gérald Boutet: Druidical Astrology Primer
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