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|DRUUIDICA PRINNION (Druidical Astrology)
by Michel-Gerald Boutet
Note: This Historical Overview of the Origins of Antique Druidical Astrology has been written with the special collaboration of Joseph Monard and comments by Dr. David Frawley. Thanks to them.
I. The Indo-European Bases of Astrology
"In the beginning the Golden Embryo arose. Once he was born, he was one lord of creation. He held in place the earth and this sky." (Rig Veda, 10.121 vs. 1)
At a very early Age, possibly 3000 BCE, a Pre-Vedic dharma was diffused over much of Eurasia. Even then, it had a solidity and unity not suspected outside of India. When one considers the pre-Vedic phase of Aryanic religion as with the Hittite tablets one discovers a highly coherent system of beliefs still present in the later forms of the Brahmanic, Avestic or Druidic dharmas. But as Dr. Frawley remarks "We now know that Vedic literature is considerably earlier than the Hittite. Hittites, Kassites and Mitanni were mainly Indian Kshatriya or an aristocratic elite that ruled mainly non-Aryan populations in the Near East. Even the Assyrians may have had such rulers in the beginning as ...((indeed, some transcriptions of their names can sound paronymic with the Sanskrit (Assur bân Apli > Assurbanipal, cf] Asura vanir Pal, the one who protects the speech of the Asuras,[ Assur Nâtsirapli > Asurnarzirpal, cf] Asura nari pal, the one who protects the people of the Asuras)) 
Contrary to popular belief, the early Aryans had developed a priestly caste that was no longer at the pre-Indo-European level of shamanism and witchcraft. In fact, these priests were neither magicians nor shamans, but chaplains to a warlord and his tribe. Therefore, it is an error to speak of "Vedic Shamans (or even Celtic for that maner)" in the anismic sense. We are not speaking here of an animistic world of anarchy where the individual human soul must negotiate with a greater animal spirit, but of a world order in which human and godly spirits coexist, compete and cooperate in accordance with the universal plan of creation. Henceforth, we are speaking of a world ruled by fate, a world timed as a clock, that is, cyclical in nature.
Wisdom had it that the Just  understood the laws of Dharma and that he acted straightaway, steadfastly, to honour the gods. This law was called rita in Sanskrit or ritus in Latin, asha in Avestic Persian and litus in Celtic. Keeping to ones dharma  was more than an oath, it is what distinguished the nobly-born  from the savage. And this is what binded him to the higher realm of the immortals. In commemoration of this, the young Aryan at his coming of age, was given a white linen tunic and a woollen strap to tie it (red for the warrior class and black or dun for the producers). One of the duties of the faithful, was to tie and untie this cordon at least thrice daily, that is, morning, noon and evening. In his service to the gods as a householder, the married man had many sacrificial duties to perform . These included keeping the sacred fire and preparing the soma  or amrita. For the Germanics it was the heavenly beer of the gods brewed with heavenly care. Soma is a plant which grows in former Sogdian in what is now known as Turkestan but was once the homeland of the Uttarakuru to which the early Cimmerians belonged. It also grows further north and is found on the mountain slopes of Kerman. Its botanical name is Sarcostema Viminalis. Shoots and stalks of Soma are mixed with curled milk, barley meal, or in India, mixed with nirvana or trinadhanya thought to be wild rice which fermented, produced a strong intoxicant considered nourishing and healthy. It was seen as prolonging life hence as a divine fortifier (J. A de Gobineau). One favourite saying of the Brahmans which just about sums the spirit of Indo-European religion was, "Who wishes to gain heaven must sacrifice". And even the concept of heaven or paradise is linked to the notion of fate, seen mainly as the "Otherworld", the Fairyland of the European folktales. Even the term "fairy" derives from Fata, the goddess of fate.
Gradually, in the northern steppes around the third or second millennium, shamanistic types of practice were almost abandoned for a highly regimented priesthood structured around an elite called *Blagmena . This second phase was highly coded and ritualistic with the focus on ceremonial and scriptural injunctions ordering sacrificial rites.
At about 1000 BCE, the steppes migrations of the Aryan Scyths and Proto-Celtic Cimmerian or Tocharians  into Central Asia in contact with the Turkish and Mongolian shamans, brought new methods of practice from the Indus Aryan-Dravidian civilisation to the European I.E. communities. This was possible only because the Aryan peoples were a highly mobile culture. Lets not forget that it was the Rishis and Druids who were the main people that spread the Aryan culture as a spiritual culture (D. Frawley/25-04-2000). The doctrines of Yoga, along with the Àtman (the spiritual self) and Dharma, Karma and reincarnation, spread like a grass fire. At about this time examples of seated gods in lotus position were found in many areas, from the Indus valley on the Mohenjo-Daro tablets to Bulgaria on the Gundestrup Cauldron. As with the case of the Gaulish mummies of the Remoi found in d'Acy-Romance near Rethel in the Ardennes, all were found seated in the lotus position . Since these bodies were not incinerated, they could not belong to the warrior's class. They therefore had to be Druids, most likely great and saintly âcâryas. In short, these new practices prompted the third Upanishadic level common to the Eastern and Western cultures.
To conclude, we can recognise at least three levels of evolution within the Aryanic faiths: 1, the post-shamanic level or pre-Vedic level; 2, the Vedic level as found in the Vedas and Hittite tablets; and 3, the post-Vedic level as found in the Upanishads or Song of Amairgen. We could add a fourth level, the level at which the great I.E. religions were individuated into what became known as Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Zoroastrianism. It is not known whether Druidism progressed beyond the third level since the Grail religion was its sychretisation with Christianism.
Space was one of the major preoccupations of Aryanic cosmography ritual and religion. Selecting the site for the practice of ritual was also a matter of ritual. Open flat land was chosen to some distance from the dwelling compounds. It had to be reasonably accessible and sheltered from the wind. Usually by a rock ledge or hedge of trees. This enclosure was refered to as a Nemeton in Old Celtic. The priests would then have the area mapped, aligned with an easterly orientation, and measured using the sacred grid . A rectangular space was marked out by digging trenches around the lot. Four causeways were built at each of the cardinal points with the eastern portion closed to access since this was the Sun's Door. No one who was not properly ordained could penetrate the holly site. The profane stood and watched from some distance to the West as the officiants performed the sacrifices. Before entering the site, the priests also had to perform certain purification rites in order to be made worthy for the gods. To each of the East, South, and North sections were fires. The main oblation fire was to the Northeast where the Summer Sun rises. The West side was considered to be in the kingdom of the dead where the Sun died, so it was left unlit and made accessible for the communicants. Wicker mats of woven straw or reed were placed by the main fire so that the invoked gods could rest upon them. Celebrants tended the fires as the priest summoned the gods by name. Oblations of nuts, fruits, cereals, and clarified butter or goat's blood were poured onto the fires in honour of the communal bond between mortals and immortals . The priest who invoked was the Hotar  There were many other officials of the priestly craft present at the rituals namely the Acolyte, who brought and removed the utensils, the Cantor who recited the hymns and the Master seer who watched over the many details. In this system of order (litus), one tiny error and the ritual backfires on the entire community.
"Sky and earth, these two who are good for everyone, hold the Order and bear the poet of space (Sun). Between the two goddesses, the two bowls that give birth magnificently, the pure sun god moves according to the laws of nature." (Rig Veda 1.160 vs. 1)
The Four skilled *Blagmenes/*Beromenes at the Proto-Celtic Cimmero-Danan level:
1) *Gutu[p]ater or Hotri, "Invoker", had the task of calling the Gods, summoning them from their seats of power to participate in feasts and receive oblations from the sacrificial fires. The gutuater was praised as the "sweet-tongued", "honeyed-tongue" (Irish texts) or in the Vedas as "beautiful-tongued". His handbook was the Rig Veda, the book of hymns;
2) *Atebertiios or Advaryu, "Sacrificer", whose task was to supervise the oblations. For this reason the Adbertiios was qualified, "silver-handed" (Irish texts) or "beautiful handed". His handbook was the Yajur Veda, book of rites. All major rites were celebrated by these two officials with their assistants whose numbers depended on the importance of the celebrations;
3) *Udcantarios or Udgatri, "Chanter", intoned selections from the Sama Veda, similar to the Rig Veda, but where the hymns were accentuated for his use, and;
4) *U[p]er Beromen, or Supervising Brahman, or Hierophant in Greek who was most often a high ranking priest to the service of a king or nobleman.
THE ZODIACAL ANIMALS AND SACRED SPACE
The cosmographic arrangement of space in I.E. myths is most often fivefold when including the centre along with the four corners. To each of these four corners is attributed a particular animal representing one of the Twin aspects of the Sun and Moon as symbolised by the Twins of Macha (Emni Magosias) in Ireland and Yama & Yami in the Vedas.
- To the East lies Murias (Celtic)/Viràt-deha (Vedic). In its centre, a peaceful lake is found, adorned with male and female Swans floating about. Its symbolical shape is that of the crescent Moon, and accordingly, the colour white is assigned to it. Its inhabitants are crescent-moonfaced, and are said to be mindful, peaceful and virtuous. Its contour is to be estimated at 9,000 miles. To the non-Indo-European Tibetans of Buddhist faith, it was known as Lu-pah (Lushpags) for "Vast Body".
- To the West lies Gorias or Godhana (= wealth of oxen) in Sanskrit. The Western Land is called Balongchod (Ba-glangspyod) in Tibetan. Its shape is like the solar disc, and red in colour. In the centre of a plain is a lake adorned with horses grazing both male and female. Its inhabitants have reddish round faces like the setting Sun, they are beef-eaters and are wealthy. Its diameter measures 8,000 miles.
- To the South lies the land of Falias, or Jambudvipa in Sanskrit corresponding to the earthly plane. It is probably an onomatopoeic word descriptive of the fruit of the jambu-tree. The Celts referred to it as Ynys Afallach in Wales (Inicia Aballaci = "the isle of the apple-orchard") or Emain Ablach, in Ireland (Emania Aballaci = "Twin's City of the apple-orchard")."The name Jambuling would thus mean the region or continent wherein jambu-fruit fall into the water. The Tibetans called it Jambuling (Jambu = fruit of the Jambu-tree + ling = "place, region"). Its symbolic shape is like that of the shoulder-blade of a sheep, that is subtriangular, or rather pear-shaped, to which the faces of its inhabitants conform. Blue is the colour assigned to it. Riches and plenty abound in it, along with both good and evil. Grand and magnificent mansions will be seen there. It is said to be the smallest of the Four continents, being but 7,000 miles in diameter."
- To the North lies Uindias/Findias, or Uttara Kuru in Sanskrit, meaning "Northern Kuru (race), corresponding to the Greek Arcadia. The Tibetans call it Daminyan or Graminyan (Sagrami-snyan) which also means "of the Northern Race". "It is of square shape and green colour. Its inhabitants have corresponding faces, square like those of horses. In this land, is a lake adorned with male and female cattle, (grazing on its shores), or trees, (round about it), will be seen. Trees supply all their sustenance and wants. Although duration of life, and merits are there, the Kuru, on dying, haunt the tree-spirits. This is the largest of the continents, being 10,000 miles in diameter (Tibetan Book of the Dead) ."
EARLY VEDIC INDO-EUROPEAN ASTROLOGY
All the various Indo-European mythologies have astrology at their foundation. Starlore is at the root of its entire philosophy. In fact, the Vedantins maintain that the Purâna, which signifies the "ancients", and which was said to contain a hundred million sentences, all written in the stars, were organised into visual patterns (constellations) at a very remote time! This original Purâna of the Vedic scriptures is the core of all wisdom given to us by the Brahma. This Testament of the stars, in the form of astrology, has very slightly diverged from one culture to an other. The esoterical lore of the Brahmans claims that the Rudras (Kumaras, Adithyas, Gandharvas or Asuras), the highest of the Devas, came down to the earthly plain to instruct humanity. They were regarded by the wise men as architects of the cosmos sent to Earth to reorganise the visible world. They were also at the head of the fifth celestial hierarchy and their astral sign was Makara (Capricorn). The legends say that this happened a million years ago when the very first races of humans were entering the earthly plane. They gave man the cult of the serpent for they themselves were seen as dragons of wisdom (Nagas). The Makara sign was at times represented as a crocodile but more often as a dolphin. The dolphin, which is also present in Greek myths and in Celtic myths as the porpoise or merman. It symbolises spirit emerging from the primordial waters. It may be argued that the myth originated in Sumer. Nevertheless, the Lepenski Vir sandstone sculptures of the Danube dated 6000 - 5000 BCE represent fish-men or mermen that parallel the Sumerian myths.
When looking at the myths, and Hittite art in particular, we are struck by their close resemblance with the Sumerian motifs. Around 2600 BCE, the Sumerians were indeed in close contact with various I.E. peoples. From 4000 to 1700 BCE, the vernal point was in fact in Taurus. Now, the Hatti who spoke Hattili, were a non-Indo-European people who might very well be of the same culture group as the Sumerians. These people were overtaken by the Indo-Europeans who came to Anatolia via the Bosphorus or the Black Sea, if not from the islands of the Aegean Sea (James Mellart, 1962; 1964; 1981). The two peoples mingled, resulting in the Hittite empire whose capital was Hattousas (now Boghazköy). Hattousas was at the head of a mighty empire that had ties and contacts with the ancient cultures of Mesopotamia (Sumer + Elam), as well as those of Egypt and Canaan. Records show that the Sumerian and Elamite languages (non-I.E.) were spoken in the mesopotamian valley around 3000 BCE. Colin Renfrew believes that a pre-I.E. language was spoken in Anatolia as far back as 7000 BCE. Dr. David Frawley, reminded me in a letter that Aratta was an ancient name for Panjab mentioned in several Vedic texts and particularly in the Mahabharata. And that it was also the land of the Druhyus (Proto-Celtic Cimmerians), the western most Vedic people said to have moved into and colonised Central Asia. He also believes that this indicates that the Sumerians were trading with Harappan India, including the Panjab. And that such people gave them chariots is quite plausible. Any Proto-Celtic-Aratta connection would bring them into India .
We know from written records that the Sumerians were in the possession of a zodiac that seems to predate those of the Greeks and Babylonians. According to a very ancient Sumerian legend, the king of Uruk, Enmerkar, wanted to subdue the prosperous city of Aratta in Iran. For this, he sent to Aratta across seven mountain ranges, his messenger bearing gifts of gold and silver. This because the two kings could not agree on the terms. After a long and perilous trip, the messenger grew weary, thus forgetting parts of the long message. This incident created the need for some form of written record, and so prompted the creation of cuneiform writing. Enmerkar was said to have engraved the symbols on a clay tablet so that the messenger could remember his lord's exact words. This account is interesting in many ways. For one, it relates of cosmological space that is found in astrology, and two, it speaks of the northern connection above the 36 th latitude. Seven is an important numeral in relation to the seven Rishis (Bulls), moving stars or planets, and Aratta can easily be compared with the Greek and Celtic word Aratos for "charioteer". Again a powerful astronomical symbol in that it represents a star in Auriga close to the North Pole. One of Ursa Major's most ancient names was in fact the "Great Chariot". The constellation of Auriga also lies to the North. The Greeks believed that Erichton  (Aratos ?) king of Athens, had invented the Chariot. Alpha Auriga is the brightest star of the constellation. It was called Capella, "the Goat Star" for it was said to represent Amalthea, Jupiter's nurse. Capella shines with a golden tinge at the zenith on February nights. In Antiquity, this would have taken place around the winter solstice. Strange enough, Capella is a double star difficult to separate even with a telescope. One of its two stars, much like our own Sun, is on the white spectrum while the other is of a yellow-red tinge. Did not Enmerkar, the Sumerian king of Uruk have gifts of silver and gold to offer the Aryan overlord of Chariots? It is therefore possible that these two stars were not as close then as they are now. If one looks closer at the Sumerian legends, one finds many overlapping details with those of the Aryanic peoples. The wild-man of the Gilgamesh cycle for example, bears much resemblance with those found in Scandinavian, Celtic and Vedic myths. This takes us to the imagery found in astrology as well as in I.E. mythology.
The Rig Veda compares the two world halves as two bowls, one for sky and one for earth. These two parts are likened to two parents who in turn look over their son "the clever charioteer with the power to make things clear and purify the universe by magic". What is meant here, is that the Sun Child dispels darkness, thus clarifying the world. And it goes on to say that "from the dappled milk-cow (earth) and the bull with good seed (sky), every day he milks that is his seed (Sun). Most artful of artful gods , he (Tvastr the Creator) gave birth to the two world halves that are good for everyone. He measured apart the two realms of space with his power of inspiration and fixed them in place with undecaying pillars (astronomy, astrology and sacred geometry)" .
The key constellations for the understanding of early I.E. astrology are certainly the Boots, Ursa Major and Taurus star groups. These, form a mythological motif which describe the narrow relationships between sky observation and farming practices during the Neolithic period. This involves Bootes, "the ploughman" and the Septemtrion  stars which form the seven principle stars of Ursa Major. The Alpha star of Boots was called Arcturus  and it was said to represent "the watcher of the seven oxen". These stars were called so because of their slow rotation around the Pole Star, Alpha Draconis and remindful of the movement of bulls as they plough. The Aryan wise men maintained that from these stars emanated seven rays that influenced our solar system, and that in turn, these seven forces were governed by seven deities whose bodies in turn, were manifested by the seven planets. From this cosmological stand point, the seven Rishis or stars from the Great Plough (Ursa Major) were in relation to the Pleiades, the Seven Sisters, their wives. In Irish lore, they were also called "the seven sisters" . One of these was called the "Old Woman", or Hag of Beara who appears as a triune goddess with her sisters Cailleach Bolus and Cailleach Corca Duibhne. She was also named Bui (Yellow) wife of Lugh, the polytechnician. In the Book of Lecan it is said that she had seven youthful periods, marrying seven husbands and having fifty foster-children, the primordial founders of nations.The Pleiades express the female aspects of the seven cows as opposites to the male Rishis represented by the seven bulls . These fourteen powers combined, act through seven of the astral signs in accordance with the Brahma (Dagda) via the unseen spiritual Sun often referred to, by esotericists, as "the Great Central Sun" or Spiritual Sun. Yogins understand this as the guiding principle of the three rays of energy emanating from the cosmic centres. Neo-druids claim to a similar notion in the form of the Tribann (three rays). These invisible forces, seen only through the inner eye are termed as "akashic", "electric", and "pranic". In turn, these seven Rishis, take part in the seven cosmic orders of the universe. On earth they manifest themselves as the first race of primeval giant Manu  who fathered the seven Manavas and who sired the first humans. 
And what about the DRUIDS?
The readers have noticed noticed by now that we quoted celtic terminology in matters of astronomy and astrology. Indeed, the masters in those matters were the DRUIDS. As part of their various specialities lets name astronomy and astrology, just to name a few. These were covered under the general term of SIREULA for "Science of Stars". Astronomers were called Sireulacoi and, at least on the goidelic (q-celtic) side, astrologers went by the name of Retlodruuides for "Astral druids"
The Seven Sages:
1- Gautama or Marìci Uesos (Knower)
2- Bharadvàja or Angiras Uocomarcos (Research)
3- Visvâmitra or Pulaha Eulacsus (Wisdom)
4- Jamadagni or Kratu Uirionos (Truth)
5- Vasistha or Pulastya Ueros (Overly)
6- Kasyapa or Bhrgu Andiatis (Superior)
7- Atri or Daksa Uindonos (Dazzling)
The seven principle Fairy stars of the Pleiadean group, were at some remoter time part of the Polar groups. Slowly, they migrated to the summer regions thus creating the allegorical shift from the kingdom of Pwyll to that of Arwn (again Aratus?). Since then, the Pleiades have received a negative influence. The Welsh texts illustrate how Arawn was the hunter king of Annwn (Andumnon), "the No-world", name of a metaphysical concept of one of the "other worlds", which was confused by some people with the *Anderodumnon = the "Nether World" They go on to mention that Pwyll of Dyfed while hunting in Gyn Cuch notices a pack of strange hounds onto a stag, onto which he sends his own hounds. These were Arawn's hounds. For this, he rebukes him of his discourtesy. To make amends, Pwyll is forced to comply to Arawn's conditions; slay his enemy Hafgan and in his guise, share the bed of Arawn's queen for one year without making love to her. Pywll fills these conditions and is permitted to return to Dyfed where he is hailed not only as their king but as lord of Annwn as well. This myth expresses the division of time into two half-years, as the old celtic notion of Semorotlio qnd Giiemorotlio: Hafgan, <*Samocandos ="Summer White", represents the Bull of the warm and light half, while the Stag, Pwyll, represents the other half's cold and dark aspects. "From the Dragon came a Bull, and from the Bull a Dragon, the Cow-keeper's (Boots) dark is under a mountain (Mount Haemus)" sang the initiates of the Orphic mysteries. And in the Bhâgavata Pûrana, Rîchabha, the Ox, is called "son of Mêru-Dêvi, the cosmic polar axis. Mount Meru was the World Mountain of the Vedas.
In a much later Celtic lore, the mountain was more a mound called Tamra alias Taura (>Tara), the Knoll, thus punning with Taruos for Bull. It was recorded that the Taurean bull had one day strayed far from his northern kingdom on West to Southern India. In another account, it is said that Rohini, Alpha Tauri, or Aldebaran, fathered Dhruva, the Pole star. The myths are clear; astrology has a northern origin!
In accordance with the solsticial observations, was the highly anticipated rise of the Pleiades at the beginning of May. The open cluster of the Pleiades was likened to a bag's opening. Most celebrated of the stars of the Pleiadean cluster was beyond doubt, Maia. Maiia in Gaul, was the tutelary goddess of the home, and this area of the "summer skies" as the ancients called it, was in truth home to the souls of the Celtoi. Then, in November Maia falls again below the horizon in November just in time for the coming New Year and the Samanios celebrations. This event was not just highly praised by the Celts, but by all the other Vedic I.E. peoples as well.
Featured on a Cimmerian Kurgan mirror (dated 625 BCE.) in an eight-fold sun-wheel pattern, are a series of very archaic looking zodiacal beasts. The artwork is unmistakably Greco-oriental in design, but with the characteristic Cimmerian animals; the boar, bear and panther. We are therefore in the presence of a Proto-Celtic culture in contact with a Scythic Indo-Iranian culture. Now, If we were to read this chariot wheel in zodiacal order (with Celtic Solar time division and Celtic and Aryan divinities), we would get:
1st HALF YEAR:
DARK HALF/GIIEMOROTLIO "Cycle of sprouts" (long nights + short days):
1st QUARTER/CENGIAMOS (Fall)/ALBA ELUETIAS (Fall equinox; "acme of plenty"): 1. BHAGA ("brother of dawn"), BHAVA (existence), Two sphinxes (Scales/Libra, equal length of day + night) with Griffin (western winds); 1st HALF QUARTER: 2. INDRA, Bear (Ursa Major), Eagle (Altair in Aquila) and Dog (Canis Major, Sirius); Protector: Dyeu-Pater/Dis Pater, in Latin, "father god, father death". Also known as Prajapati, "Lord of creatures" in India, Dagos Deuos in Gaul, and Zeus in Greece. He is Grandfather of the world, the God who grants boons and his consort is the Earth goddess.
2nd QUARTER/GIAMOROTIO (Winter)/ARTUANA ALBA (Winter solstice; "stone hard acme"): 3. MITRA and Varuna or Twins (Gemini; also the Brick Stack), fighting a Griffin (northern winds); 2nd HALF QUARTER: 4. VARUNA, Tiger and Ram (Aries, vernal point); Protectors; Yemonoi, "the Twins", Yama and Yami in Sanskrit and Castor and Polux in Greek tradition. Yama is king of the dead, sovereign over the Southern realm with his sister Yami is considered as the first human.
2nd HALF YEAR:
LIGHT HALF/SEMOROTLIO "Cycle of seeds" (long days + short nights):
3rd QUARTER/UESARA (Spring)/ELARIS ALBA (Spring equinox; "lively acme"): 5. DAKSA, Two Sphinxes (Libra, equal days + nights) holding World Pole (Dragon) with Bear-cub (Pole Star, Ursa Minor); 3rd HALF QUARTER: 6. ARYAMAN/ARIOMANOS, Lion (Cat Star-Hyades) devouring Bull (Taurus) with Boar (Alioth, Mizar/Alcor and Benetnash in Ursa Maj.); Protector; Perkwos or Perkunas, in Lithuanian and Parjanya in Sanskrit, "the oak thunder god" and/or Belios, "bright", the Celtic solar-fire god. Also Rudra, "the howler" or "ruddy one", god of tempest who is one of the eight Rudras: Bhava, Sarva, Pasupati, Ugra, Mahadeva, Rudra, Isana, and Asani (1-existence, 2-he who has arrows, 3-lord of cattle, 4-dread, 5-great god, 6-howler, 7-ruler, and 8-thunderbolt).
4th QUARTER/SAMOROTIO (Summer)/ERUINA ALBA-ALBA SAMI (Summer solstice; "the farming acme, acme of summertime"): 7. VIVASVAT/GRANNOS ("beaming", the Sun), Aditi or Cybele holding panthers (Cassiopea ?); 4th HALF QUARTER: 8. AMSU, Two Lions (Leo major + minor ?) fighting with two Goats (Capella and Menkalinan in Auriga); Protector; Aditi, wife of world wisdom and mother of the eight Adityas. Cybele is a nature goddess of the ancient peoples of Asia Minor, and/or Bouenda, "the End of Cows", who gave the Milky Way, Rohini, "the Red Cow", wife of the Moon and a constellation (Gaul/India). Rohini is mother to Samkarsana Balarama, similar to the Celtic Ambactos/Amaethon, (Samkarsana = "he who draws or ploughs".
- Note that the constellations found in this zodiac are almost all from the circumpolar area. These constellations never descend. Being too far north they endlessly circle around Dhruva, the Polar star. The height of these stars is equal to the latitude they are observed on, which is about 43 degrees noon, 49 degrees in Paris. The conclusion to be drawn from this, is that this zodiac originated somewhere in North Eurasia and gives a good indication on the original homeland of the early Indo-European peoples. Originally the 12 sign zodiac comprised of eight signs. These were known as the eight Adityas, the sons of Aditi (infinity), a solar goddess who were: Mitra, Aryaman, Bhaga, Varuna, Amsu, Indra, Daksa, and Vivasvat. A half year contains 182.625 days, a quarter year 91.3125 days, a half quarter year contains 45.65625 days and a sixteenth of a solar year amounts to 22.828125 days (16 = Sun's acme).
I KUB VII 1+KBO III 8+14/KUB XXV 33 tablets:
"Leashed was the Great River and its current:
1. Leashed were the fish in position (Sagittarius);
2. The high mountains; deep valleys, the prairie of the Storm God in the reeds (Capricornius);
3. Leashed the Wings of the Eagle (Aquarius);
4. Leashed the Bearded Serpents intertwined (Pisces);
III (KUB XXV 37) The King sacrifices for Ziparwa,
5. a Ram (Aries);
6. a Bull (Taurus);
For the Eya Tree a Ram and a Bull they slay for above.
(KUB XII 62) to the True GiSh-RU, under which sleep the New-born Lion and Deer of the Year;
7. Leashed a Leopard in a Lost Land (Gemini);
8. Leashed a Wolf in a High Place (Cancer);
9. Leashed a Proud Lion (Leo);
10. Leashed a Gracious Antilope and its milk (Virgo);
11. Leashed the throne of the Tutelary divinity (Libra);
IIII And Ishtar (the Star) said this to Maliya, and Maliya repeated it to Pirwa; and Pirwa repeated it to Kamrusepa. And Kamrusepa saddled his horse and trotted away to the Great River (Milky Way).
12. The three World Horses: White Horse, Red Horse, and Black horse (Scorpius);
V And she conjured Kamrusepa the Great River. And then in it, She conjured the Fish in the water first. The Great River and its current was unleashed.
The Fish were unleashed.
1-The Hair-Brush (Pleiades); 2-the Bull of Anu (Taurus); 3-Anu's True Shepherd (Orion); 4-the Old Man (Perseus); 5-Gamlu Sickle Sword or Harpé (Auriga); 6-The Great Twins (Gemini); 7-Al.Lil (Procyon or Cancer/Crab); 8-Lion or Lioness (Leo); 9-Furrow (Spica); 10-Balance (Libra/Scales); 11-Scorpion (Scorpio); 12-Archer (Sagittarius); 13-Goatfish (Capricorn); 14-Great Star or Giant (Aquarius); 15-The Tails (Pisces/Fishes); 16-The Great Swallow (Piscis SW with Epsilon Pegasi); 17-The Goddess Anunitum (Piscis NE with middle part of Andromeda); 18-Hireling (Aries/Ram).
In the Hindu myths, the house of the husband and wife (pati and patni) comes to life through the shape-shiftings of the life principle which spews forth a procession of beasts and farm animals: "She became a cow; he became a bull and united with her, and from this all the cattle were born. She became a mare; he became a stallion. She became a female ass; he became a male ass and united with her, and from this all whole-hoofed animals were born. She became a she-goat; he became a Billy-goat; she became a ewe; he became a ram and united with her, and from this goats and sheep were born. Thus he created all the pairs, even down to the ants."
I- Solar path, the zodiacal cutoff:
- A thing about the Brahmic contribution into the field of calendar and astrological matters. On the Vedic ground, there is an obvious parallelism with the Druidical input of the Celtic side: same formulas, but different names.
Current terms Vedic Celtic
Aries the Ram Mesa = Ram Cuti Prinnios
Taurus, the Bull Vrsabha = Bull, Steer Giamoni Prinnios
Gemini, the Twins Mithuna = Pair, Couple Semiuisoni Prinnios
Cancer, the Crab Kartata = Crab Equi Prinnios
Leo, the Lion Simha = Lion Elembiui Prinnios
Virgo, the Maiden Kanya = Maiden Edrini Prinnios
Libra, the Scale Tula = Scale Cantli Prinnios
Scorpio, the Scorpion Vrsika = Scorpion Samoni Prinnios
Sagittarius, Archer Dhanus = Archer Dumanni Prinnios
Capricornius, Goat Makara = Crocodile Riuri Prinnios
Aquarius, Water-bearer Kumbha = Water-jar Anaganti Prinnios
Pisces, the Fishes Mîna = Fish Ogroni Prinnios
- Karka and Karkataka instead of Kartaka;
- Çapa instead of Dhanus.
As in Celtic, several opportunities for punning (çlesha in Sanskrit) were seized, for instance:
- Dhanus/Dyanus: ArcherDry ground from Mainland or IsleGood;
- Vrsika/Vrsiha: ScorpioShear Makara: CrocodileScreamer;
Mithuna: Pair from couplepaired, from interchangeable.
Common points: the timing of each zodiacal twelfth of year.
II- Lunar path:
- The Vedic solar year started from Spring Equinox, the Celtic one from Fall Equinox. Except for the Ram and perhaps with Giamonios punning with Gamos = bovine, the name meanings were quite different.
- On the Vedic part, these were almost the same as in most civilisations East and West of Mediterranea. This suggests massive exchanges with the Sumerian culture from a quite remote past.
# 1 Çaitra = Cut-off # 6 Cutios
# 2 Vaisâdha = Weaver # 7 Giamonios
# 3 Jayistha = Victorious # 8 Simiuisonios
# 4 Asâdha = Arrival # 9 Equos
# 5 Srâvana = Flowing # 10 Elembiuios
# 6 Bhâdrapada = Lucky # 11 Edrinios
# 7 Åsvina = Horsewoman # 12 Cantlos
# 8 Karttika = Shearing # 1 Samonios
# 9 Agrahayana = Peak # 2 Dumannios
# 10 Pausa = ?? # 3 Riurios
# 11 Mâgha = Strength # 4 Anagantios
# 12 Phâlguna = Split # 5 Ogronios
Ciallosbuis Sonnocingos = Checking of sun-course.
- Purusottama; Leap Months: MIDX = Month in duplication and
- Åsvavija = Horse in place of Asvina Margasirsa = Summit replacing Agrahayana Taisa = ?? instead of Pausa
Common points: general mechanism of system two half-months = waning Moon (krsnapaksa in Sanskrit) then waxing Moon (suklapaksa);
- Asadha = Arrival || Demise
- Bhadrapada = Lucky || Happy walk
- Margasirsa = Summit || Death
- Màgha = Strength from Power || Gift
- at least with the earliest Vedic system; and later-on, with the extent of Southern conquests - some Southern kingdoms chose to start months at New-Moon, for five-years quinquennia.
- different beginning of year 60 years "siecles" on the Vedic side Vs 30 years on the Celtic side.
- One leap-month name only on the Vedic side Vs two on the Celtic side.
It is very unlikely that the Druid's system of astrology would diverge to the point expressed in the reconstructed models of Carol Carnac's and Helena Paterson's Celtic Astrology, or the Astrologie Gauloise of Edgar Bliss. Did not Cassidorus say that the Getae knew twelve signs? The charioteer may change but the vehicle, the sun-chariot, remains on the same path. A close scrutiny of the Irish manuscripts reveals a system halfway between the Hindu and Greek systems. In fact, astrology originates in the primordial myths of Manu/Maine/Mannus found in all the I.E. traditions. "Yama the first son of the sun, becomes the first mortal man and later god of the dead, while Manu, the sun's son in post-Vedic versions, is said to be the ancestor of the human race but is not deified." Astrology can be likened to a movie screen which sets the visual representations of the zodiac in a very narrow band. The Greek poets called it Eurydice's belt. Eurydice (Eurudikè) was Orpheus' wife. Orpheus almost succeeds in bringing her back from Hades, Land of the dead, back to the Land of the Living. The same myth is found in the Celtic tradition. It was said that the first thing written in ogham was the Birch sign writen seven times to prevent Lugh's wife from being abducted into the Otherworld. Dechtirè  was thus saved to give Lugh a son called Setanta . This sets the motion of the Sun's path through the zodiacal signs.
The signs are always 12 to a number at a 30o angle. The Sun moves at about one degree per day and it takes roughly 30 days, a little more than one lunar month to move from one sign to the other. Therefore, each morning the Sun rises at a different point on the horizon. In one year the Sun will have covered 360o taking 365.2422 days (365 days 5 hours 48 minutes and 49.6 seconds) to return on the vernal point where it began its cycle. This value is almost the same as 2000 years ago (the Sonnocinxs took then 354.2423 days).
-Why is the tropical year longer than the zodiacal degrees? ...For three reasons:
-Why the 7 Birches? Simply because the name for birch was Betua, punning with Bitu for "world" and that there were seven worlds or moving stars for the known planets, and Sun and Moon included; also, that 7 was the Earth's and Saturn's acme (Space = 4 corners + 3 orders). There were also as we have seen, seven sages, also called the Seven Peaks of Knowledge. 'B' is therefore for Benna = mountain peak also punning with Bena for woman. The ancients knew this because the planets were moving, that they were not in a fixed pattern and not innumerable much like the stars. The Greeks had the Sun start its course in Aries. This was termed as the vernal point. Why vernal? Because these are the points that correspond to the two equinoxes and that Ver is Latin for "spring". These events come twice yearly when the days are at exact length with the nights. Western astrologers have the first vernal point at the spring equinox, while the Druids had their vernal point start in fall, just ahead of the advent of the new year, starting with the consecutive Full Moon.
- Because the circle-division into 360m is an arbitrary mathematical convention having been inspired by its approximation against the estimated duration of the year in number of days, worked out in order to be divisible into twelve integers.
- Because the time taken by the Earth's revolution around the Sun is not an integer multiple of its own rotation.
- Also as its orbit is slightly elliptic, resulting in a non constant revolution speed while the definition of the zodiacal constellations is inaccurate and approximate in mesure. Tradition has it that certain stellar archipelagos or star clusters, were so dense and others so sparse, that large constellations would take over the two bordering signs, while the small ones lost part of their astrological houses. Certain constellations also overlap during the part of certain months. For example, in Capricorn the Sun rises in the stars belonging to Aquarius.
This being said, there are many such as J. Monard who do not give much credence to Astrology. In fact, he doesn't give much credit to the arbitrary notion of the "Age of Aries" or "Age of Aquarius" (even though we hear so much about it, he says). - Adding that it is "a notion without significance and without scientific or astronomical value having no incidence on human determinism". Going on to say that the Sun is running at 19.4 kilometres per second toward its apex, and that the Earth orbit being a helical path within the Galaxy means that the Earth never gets back at the same spot in Space. Or again that, the zodiacal constellations are a mere optical convention. And that all this means that there is no actual relationship between Earth and the Space environment. Therefore, for the sceptic, this notion of "Piscean Age" or "Aquarian age" is meaningless.
- The world giant  here looses his head which is in Aries. The indexing of the Moon on the late September horizon is much more convenient than it is with the spring lunar conjunction. Also, the Sun is off from its initial point at about .1 second every year. This accounts for the displacement of two signs since the Astrologers first devised the Zodiac. The true spring vernal point is now moving from Pisces to Aquarius. The phenomenon of the precession of the equinoxes was first explained by Hipparchus the Greek astronomer in 128 CE. It was he who divided the circle into 360o, divisible into 60 minutes of 60 seconds, along with the first catalogue of stars. "That the fixed 'stars' were fixed, but not moving - hence the long-term change in the position of the equinox, the 'first point of Aries', against their background - had been known from the time of Hipparchus, and the precession of the equinoxes given quantitative meaning in the Almagest. There were two schools of thought: one stating that the equinoxes would eventually arrive back where they started after 36,000 years, or the "trepidation" theory stating that they first moved one way for a while and then moved back again, and so on. Ptolemy belonged to the first (correct) school, and worked out the amount of precession. His theory became the normal teaching of the Alexandrians." 
But for the holder of Druidic or Vedic Science, Astrology reflects a higher plane not perceivable to the materialistic minded. The world, as we perceive it with our fleshy eyes and minds, is but an illusion. For the eyes of mind are clouded by Maya, Morigena's Veil, or Manauitanos's Cloak of Invisibility. The true workings of Astrology can only be perceived through the eyes of the Soul! Or as the Ancients had it: "Astra inclinant, non necessitant (The stars impel (incline) but do not compel (necessitate))."
II. Druidical Astrology
On Uindonnos-Cernunnos, Lord of the Zodiacal Beasts: "Huge of stature as the man had told me that he was, I found him to exceed by far the description he had given me... And he only spoke to me in answer to my questions. Then I asked him what power he held over those animals. 'I will show thee, little man' said he. And he took his club in his hand and with it struck a stag a great blow so that it brayed vehemently, and at his braying the animals came together, as numerous as the stars in the sky, so that it was difficult for me to find room in the glade to stand among them. There were serpents, and dragons, and divers sorts of animals. And he looked at them, and bade them go and feed; and they bowed their heads and did him homage as vassals to their lord." (The Mabinogion)
Roman scholars have often reported that the Gauls, of all the empire's people were the most receptive to astrology. This pedagogical art and Druidic-science was always high on the agenda as an important subject matter in the curriculum of all the pagan schools of southern Gaul.
As Peter Berresford Ellis remarked, it is very surprising considering the classical sources that there is so little mention of it in the Celtic texts. Pomponius Mela (ca. A. D. 43) noticed the high regard accorded to the Druids who were held for their "speculations by the stars." Then there is the mention of Flavius Magnus Aurelius Cassidorus (ca. A. D. 490-583) concerning the Getae, an eastern Celtic tribe, as being well learned in moral and natural philosophy and knowing the "course of the twelve signs of the zodiac, and the planets passing through them and the whole of astronomy. The Anatolian Greek, Strabo (64 BCE - 24 CE), spoke of a Celtic Druid named Abaris  in Athens discussing such matters with the Greeks. At a time when astrology and astronomy were the same science, the Celts were, according to Cicero, Caesar, Pliny, Tacitus, and other classical writers, masters of astronomy." This apparent silence can only be explained by the fact that the Christian censorship of the pagan arts has been very successful . Peter Berresford Ellis had also noticed thanks to his vast understanding of details found in the various Celtic corpuses that Celtic cosmology paralleled Vedic cosmology. He noticed that the ancient Celtic astrologers used similar systems as those of the Vedic astrologers. This system was based on the twenty seven lunar mansions called nakshatras in Sanskrit. His main argument was found in the motif of the circular palace of King Aillil which was made up of twenty-seven windows and through which he could observe his "Star Wives", equally twenty-seven. Berresford Ellis also noticed that Aillil had traits similar to the Hindu Soma. This should not come as a surprise, since his queen was none other than Medba, the Mead Queen .
As for Taliesin, we have no doubt whatsoever as to his qualities of being to the Welsh what Ptolemy (ca. 2nd c. CE) was to the Alexandrian Greeks:
"I am learned in the principal sciences, and the reasoning of astrologers concerning veins and solvents, and the general nature of man" (The Hostile Confederacy)...I am a wise man of the primal knowledge, I am an experienced astrologer, Pronounce solutions, I speak to habitual sycophants, I continue to behold God" (The Hostile Conspiracy).
From Geoffrey of Monmouth, more fragments of ancient Welsh astrology attributed to Merlin are to be found in the Historia Regum Britanniae (ca. 1134).
A Xth c. text, the Saltair na Rann (Psalter of Quatrains), states that every educated Irishman knew the names of the signs of the zodiac in order, and the correct day and month when the sun entered the signs. And according to Cormac Mac Cuileannain (836-908 CE) in Sanas Chormaic (Cormac Glossary), any well informed person could throughout the year estimate the hour of the night by the Moon and stars' positions. The Book of Ballymote (Lebhor Bhaile Mhota), fews number 21, gives a series of graphic symbols that have no familiar resonance, if not to Alchemist's symbols. A closer study revealed them to be alternative signs to the classical ones used by modern astrologers. And indeed, many of the Ballymote signs do parallel the modern ones, especially the OG/Leo and ICT/Pisces signs. Many have the particularity of resembling astronomer's tools such as the gnomon or sundial (LN/Scorpio), while others look like the instruments they should depict (IND/Scale for Libra). Most interesting are the two signs that parallel the Hindu Yoni  (womb) and the Linga (phallus) fertility signs. These are OG/Leo (fawn) and ECH/Virgo (horse).
Etymologies for the Ballymote astrological sigils:
IUL: iùl < eola < eula = science; Iuliuos/-a/-on = merry, punning with Latin Iulius, a patronymic name, and later on a month name: Iulius mensis = July (NB: this month name has replaced the former Quintilis as a token of toadyism towards Iulius Caesar).
OG: < og-os/-a/-on = pure, ogi-os/-a = youth;
ECH: < Equs = livestock, Eqos/Epos = horse, Ecuos < Aecuos = equal, Igo = water;
IND.: < Ind-/in- = in, indi/endi = there, up to, endon = end, endô v. to find out.
.LN.: < 'Ln- > alno = beyond, aln-os/-a/-on = the here-after;
.RII.: < 'Rii- < ire < eri - = beyond, on the other side, punning with Eror= eagle, also Rii-os/-a/-on = free, Rixs = king;
.LU.: < 'Lu- < Elu = much, Eluo = profit, gain, Elua = herd.
FII.: < Uii- < Ueigio v. to weave, Ueaia < Uegeadia = weaver, theonym, Fairy, Uei, interjection = bad!;
ICT.: < Ict- < Ectus < Pectus = progeny, Ectos = exterior, Ictos/-a/-on = crafty, punning with Greek Ikhtus = fish, Latin Ictus = beat, measure.
ARB.: < Aru-a/-on = furrow, Arbara= cereal, Arbor = corn-growing land.
INSCI: < Insce < Inisg < Enisqiâ/Enispiâ = speech.
RUIDHÛSG: < Ruithûsg, from Ruith < Reta/Rota = wheel + < usga < Udscia = drink-water
Possible feeling of relationship with Uec-os/-a/-on = mandatory as sacred > Uecoreta = Sacred-wheel (also Labaron), punning with Uecoracta = omen, divining.
DIAILM: < Di- = prefix out, of + Alamios = pine, the 'A' ogham, or Alam-os/-a = herd, from out of 'A', out the herd;
FICT: < Uicta = force, armed force, Uictos/-a/-on = defeated, beaten, Uecta = cartage, carriage, Uectâ v. to turn, Uectos = occasion;
DACT: Dageto = blaze punning perhaps with *Doageto = conduct < Doago = to lead, maybe coalescing zith Duco = to guide, to tow > Duct-os/-a/-on = guided, conducted, hinting at Dexs, Dexsiuos = right> South or even Tecta = property, ownership, arrival, Tecto = mission, shelter, ownership, Tectos = legitimate possessor, planet Jupiter, owner, detatched;
GQT/GAXT: < Cacta/Capta = captive, maidservant, Cacto = power, Cactos/Captos = power;
The first twelve abbreviations are astrological, the four others are astronomical indications in relation to the wheel of time. All of this reminiscing the concept of Yogas, or yokes in Vedic astrology. Yoke or Yoga was expressed Iugon or Uedon in Celtic or Cuing in Old Irish from Comiugon, for conjunction.
We have seen how Fionn's Wheel was in truth the Tree almanac which explains why Fionn was labelled "the possessor of Wheels". Under its oracular aspect, that wheel was said Roth Fail in Ireland while the famous expert in this matter was a Druid nicknamed Mogh Ruith (and on the Brythonic side, the Dasgubell Rhod) . We also know that the Celtic, Heraklès, Ogmios/Ogma, god of eloquence, was credited with the invention of the oghamic writing system.
So let us now turn to Ferchertne. Ferchertne's name is tied to the Stich-board (fews # 18 and the sigla of fews # 21). These had to be the signs used by the Druids to note the 12 constellations and zodiacal signs. It was said that Ferchertne was the grandson of Fer Rossa Ruaidh and the great-grandson of Rudraidhe, son of Partholon . It was said that Rudraidhe was the acclaimed founder of the royal house of Ulster.
As for Ferchertne, the myths inform us that he was a bard of Cu Roi, king of Munster . Munster is the Irish province associated with the dead. It is said that Tech Duinn  lies just off its coast seen from Southern Eire. Tech Duinn was not far from the Kenmare south-Eastern shore (J. Monard). When Ferchertne was taken hostage by Cuchulainn, he discovered that Cuchulainn's victory had been achieved through Cu Roi's wife, Blathnat. Since Blathnat had fallen under the charm of the Ulster champion, Ferchertne sought to take vengeance on Cuchulainn to save his king's honour. As Blathnat was standing unguarded by the cliffs of the Beara Peninsula, Fercherdne seized the opportunity to take her round the waist and leap with her over the cliffs.
This account, in prosaic terms, relates the astronomers' wrestling with the difficulties of the dual cycles with the solar path - Sonnocinxs in Old Celtic - (Cuchulainn in that allegory) and the path and the lunar path (Blathnat, there - might suggest some non-eymological relationship with the Old Celtic noun for the lunar year: Blidnis). Blathnat, daughter of Mend, gives the signal by emptying milk into a stream (Milky Way) which ran to the fortress (Grey Hill Fort of lunar mansions).
NB: In fact her name contains the same root Blât-/Blôt- = blossom as Bloddeuwedd of the Mabinogi.
The astronomer must therefore have to tackle with the treacheries of the Moon's orbit first, but not the astrologer for whom the lunar-solar gearing was not mandatory.
- To make it clear: In the Celtic civilisation of Antiquity, astronomy and the job of keeping the calendar under control, were Druidical tasks. The Gaulish Coligny calendar shows just this, that is, how the Druids in charge of it had solved the difficult lunar-solar follow-up in the most clever and logical way.
Conversely, astrologers had somehow an easier task to tackle since astrology is based essentially on the positions of constellations and planets. Subsidarily only, unless they were using the lunar mansions, might they have paid attention to the Moon in the assessment making for horoscopic refinements. They were mainly concerned with the Sonnocinxs (solar path) and the five wandering planets known in yonder time: Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn - and the Celts had names for these of course... albeit several among those ancient names are not secured enough to be quoted by ourselves nowadays.
- Here is a little recall on the non-matching of the solar and lunar years raising the lunar-solar problem in terms of calendar-days (1) and orbits (2):
1. The average duration of the zodiacal month is one twelfth of the solar year which is 30.4368; while the average duration of the lunar month for which one lunation is 29.5305 days resulting in a discrepancy of 12 x -.9063 = -10.88 days per year in rounded figures. So for instance, if both durations were 30, there would have been no problem with 360 days through twelve lunations per year.
2. The orbits of the Earth's revolution around the Sun and of the Moon around the Earth are not on a straight plan. If they were in that ideal situation, we would have a Lunar eclipse at every Full Moon and a Solar eclipse at every New Moon. Furthermore, Earth's orbit is elliptic while the Moon's orbit slightly undulates.
MODELS FOR A CELTIC ZODIAC
Here is Hageneder's outstanding and fairly credible construction for a Celtic Zodiac.
Friedrich Hageneder's Tree-signs:
I- Chieftain trees and landmarks for Quarterly Festivities
A Ailm (Fir!) on the next day after Winter Solstice
O Onn (Broom!) by Spring Equinox
U Ura (Lime-tree!) by Summer Solstice
E Eadha (Aspen) by Fall Equinox
I Iohu (Yew) on Winter Solstice
II- The thirteen tree signs, each lasting over 4 x 7 = 28 days, start from Winter Solstice
B Beth (Birch)
H Huath (Hawthorn)
M Muir (Bramble)
L Luis (Service-tree)
D Duir (Oak)
G Gort (Ivy)
N Nion (Ash-tree)
T Tinne (Holly-Oak)
Z Straif (Blackthorn)
F Fearn (Alder)
C Coll (Hazel)
R Ruis (Elder)
S Saille (Willow)
From the Book of Ballymote:
(With its terminology proposed in its likely earlier form through an etymological reconstitution);
EULAS/EOLAS UEDON: Science Yoke (Cancer);
OGIAS UEDON: Pure Yoke, Yoke of Youth (Leo);
EQOUOS UEDON/ AECUON UEDON: Livestock Yoke, Equal Yoke (Virgo);
ENDOUEDON/ENIUEDON: End Yoke, In-Yoke (Libra);
ALNON UEDON: Here-after Yoke (Scorpio);
ERI-UEDON: Beyond the Yoke (Sagittarius);
AURINION UEDON: Golden Yoke (Capricorn);
UEGETON UEDON: Woven Yoke (Aquarius);
ECTON UEDON: Exterior Yoke (Pisces);
ARUAUEDON: Furrow Yoke (Aries);
ENISQIÀS/ENISPIÀS UEDON: Speech Yoke (Taurus);
UECORETAS UEDON: Sacred Wheel Yoke (Gemini);
ALAMIU-DE: Out of 'A' (Pine), for Alba Artuana, the Winter Solstice;
UECTA : Turn, 30o
DUCTOS : Guided, 0o
CACTA/CACTO : Captive, Power, 90o
The Coligny Calendar:
CANTLI PRINNIOS (Libra);
SAMONI PRINNIOS (Scorpio);
DUMANNI PRINNIOS (Sagittarius);
RIURI PRINNIOS (Capricorn);
ANAGANTI PRINNIOS (Aquarius);
OGRONI PRINNIOS (Pisces);
CUTI PRINNIOS (Aries);
GIAMONI PRINNIOS (Taurus);
SIMIUISONI PRINNIOS (Gemini);
EQUI PRINNIOS (Cancer);
ELEMBIUI PRINNIOS (Leo);
EDRINI PRINNIOS (Virgo).
THE ZODIACAL ERAS
The notion of zodiacal "eras", another concept from Druidic/Vedic science, found in Vedic astrology, if not Druidic, can be traced at least at the start of the Taurean age if not at the start of Gemini. Each era comprises of 2160 of Plato's years. In this bucolic procession, first came Cunes, the hounds, Taruos the Bull, then came Qutios (later Putios), the Ram, followed by Eiscoi, the Fishes or Ogronoi, the reptiles - and especially, snakes, finally this age; Brauanos/Brannos, the Raven or Xdonios/Donios, the "Chtonian" - the Man, for a total of 6480 years. (...but then again the I.E. had not been "differentiated" earlier than 3500 BCE and Proto-Celts, not earlier than 1400 BCE...at that time, it was therefore the same for all the Proto-Vedic peoples).
Could thus Aquarius be the "Age of Man" (64 yrs)? Interestingly, the horned figure on the Gundestrup Cauldron is found holding a large snake, and on the Cauldron's bottom a large Bull is featured. "The divine bull" and magical cows are an important motif, and perhaps the Tain Bo Cuailgne is the most famous demonstration of this.
Taruos Tricaranos, the three-horned bull of Gaul, or Taruos Trigaranos, the bull with the three cranes is also found in Britain.
We have the surviving Gaulish name Donnotaruos, "Brown Bull" and Donnos's Bull" also.
Boann < Boenda, as punning later on with Bouca uinda = White Cow, is one of several goddesses connected with cattle. The story of the cow of Buchat Buasach features an otherworldly bull owned by Morigena who attempts to make off with it.
In the zodiacal line-up, there is a procession of both domestic and wild animals, including the human couple. This exemplifies the dual nature of ancient rural activity; hunting and farming.
This brings us to the Druidical ages or cosmic cycle which should compare to the four world ages or "divine years" found in the Mahabharata. A cosmic cycle numbers 12,000 "divine years" which in "human years" adds up to 4,320,000 years. One portion of that cosmic cycle, the fourth, is called the Kali Yuga, which is exactly one tenth of that sum: 432, 000 years. In the druidical scheme, five ages = 12,600, that is, 4 x 2520 = 10,080 + 1 intercalary age 10,080 + 2520 = 12,600.
Sum of "divine year" in a cosmic cycle:
12 x 201 = 241,200; 1200 x 380 = 456,000; 1200 x 360 = 432,000.
Likewise, the Druids counted 30 years cycles (a day as a year) grouped by twelve yielding 360 years. Twelve zodiacal cycles of 360 years yield one zodiacal era of 4320 years or one cycle of 95 x 30 years yielding a cosmic age of 2520 years. The difference betwen the two cycles is of 1800 years or 60 x 30 years cycles.
NB: Based on the same system, the Brahmans used 60 years cycles instead of thirty: here was the main difference between vedic and druidical calendars.
The four Ages comprise one Aeon or Kalpa in Greek and Sanskrit or *Aeiiôn in Celtic. Each Age within an *Aeiiôn consists of a blow of the club hit by Albiiorixs the Rixtarios, the Regulator.
In each of the vedic Ages, Siva takes a part; in the Krta Age, he is the yogi; in the Tretà Age, he is known as Kratu, son of Brahmà, a personification of sacrifice; in the Dvàpara Age, he is the Doomsday Fire; and in the Kali Age, he is Dharmaketu ("having the Law as his banner"). As for the Hindu and Greek myths, for each of these Ages, an element, and a race, are given.
THE FOUR COSMIC AGES
1. AES NEMETI - The Age of Nemetos (Sacred): "I am the sound of the Sea, I am a stag of seven points (Song of Amairgen)": The first Age, Krita Yuga, in which Four lakes, twelve plains are created. The calendar is set on the first night of the Uegilia Samoni (Samhain) and tributes are paid to the demons of the underworld, that are the Uomorioi. This is the Age of Water. The Dawn Stag is the first cause of manifestation during the creation of this Age, and it corresponds to the initial wave led by the Horse spirit. The world is ruled by Nemetos or Uindos (Fionn) in the East. This Age of Truth, the Golden Age, corresponds to the prime time. In this first wave are brought the four branches of knowledge, the Uidiia which contain the Four Druid sciences, such as logic, astronomy, natural sciences and grammar. Element: Water from the Eastern quarters from which comes Medus (Soma in Sanskrit).
2. AES UIRI or AES BOLGII - The Age of Truth or the Age of the Portly: "I am the Bull of seven fights. I am a battle-waging spear of spoil, I am the God who fashions fire in the mind. Who but I knows the secrets of the stone door? Who has seven times sought the Places of Peace? Who, save I knows the ages of the Moon, the place and time the Sun sets? Who calls the kine from Tethra's house, who sees them dance in the bright heavens?" (song of Amairgen): They disembark with the men of Gaul on the day of the Lugi Naissatis (Lugnasad) and bring the spear or the solar light-ray to the world. This is the Age of Earth: the Belgioi  carry bags of earth with them in order to raise mounds to the gods. From the Horse spirit, the spirit of the Day Bull emerges in the duality of Earth and Water in the West. The Age of Tritos (threesome), for the Bolgioi. This is the Age of Tethra, the age of Breath, or Age of Tretà. The bag is also in relation to the winds and tides, and is also known as the wind bag or Treasure Bag of the Fianna. This Age is marked by Tethra, a Uomorios sea lord, who much like Manannan was called the "lord of the joyous Otherworld". During this Age death comes into the world. The laws that govern the world are made under the rulership of Iuocatus Ercogenos, Talantio's spouse, the high king who "fights with yew".
3. AES DANUNOS - The Age of Boons, the Age of Tuatha Dé Dannan . "Who but I knows the secrets of the stone door ". The people of the Goddess Danu/Anna descend upon Earth on the day of the Belotenia (Beltane), in time for the fire celebrations in honour of Belios. Thanks to their magic and science they triumph over the Belgioi during the first battle of the Great Plain. They bring with them the four sacred objects which represent the four elements and principles of power that govern the laws of nature. These are: the Sword of Nodons/Nuada (Space), for Air which define the Four Winds which blow from caves situated at the four corners of the Earth; the Stone of Ualis/Fal (Power), from the women of Peace, the Bena Seduonos or Bena Sedi (Women of the Abode) which stands for Fire; the Cauldron of Dagos Deuos/Dagda (Plenty), for primordial water and the Sun's rise over the horizon and Moon's effect on the seas; the Spear of Lugus/Lugh (Manifestation) for Earth defining the Sun's path from East to West. This Fire element is defined by the coupling of Horses and Cattle each representing an aspect of opposing pairs of the Void and the Plenty of Creation and Destruction. Its position is to the fiery South. "I am a Hawk on a cliff", surely of a solar fiery nature, for "I am a teardrop of the sun". Duality is therefore the key word. An easy pun can be made from Duobis (double), Dumnos (underworld), and Dubis (dark) This is the Vedic Age of the doomsday fire, the Age of Dvàpara.
Element: Air, wind, blowing from the North-western quarter under the rulership of Circios (Vàyu in Sanskrit), lord of the winds.
4. AES MILETONOS - The Age of Mileto>Mile (Havoc) "I am a boar of boldness": this last and fourth Age is the same as the Age of Kali, the present Age which is the worst of the four Ages. This present race also comes about on the advent of the Belotenia celebrations. This Age is set by the Triune Goddess of Fate, Destiny, and Death also known as the three mothers (Treis Matrai), the three Plains (Magosiai >Macha) or the three Crones (Caliacas). The poet of sorrows Amarogenos> Amergen (Born from Sorrow), secures peace for the inhabitants of the Earth Plain by reaching an agreement with the three tutelary goddesses. People are subjected to death and are sent to the House of Donn . The Tuatha Dé Danann return to their otherworldly abodes. This element (Air), in its moving nature is represented by Lord Dis father of Death, as breath (Esus), and as father to the present race. Because of this, it is situated in the North. The Vedas maintain that in this Age the acts of evil men will be destroyed by an avatar of Visnu, Kalkin (Iuocatuos > Eochaidh), riding to raze the wicked cities of the plain polluted by foreign ways. In the end personal and collective dharma will be restored thus permitting the return of the Golden Age.
Interestingly, Berossos's list  of antediluvian Persian kings compares quite well with the Irish list found in the:
BEROSOS (Persia) : Book of Invasions:
(mythic ruler - years - rule)
1) Aloros - 36, 000 - Uindosenos - Fintan - 1260
2) Alaparos - 10, 800 - Baloros - Balor (Deluge) - 1260
3) Amelon - 46, 800 - Partolos - Partholon - 1260
4) Ammenon - 43, 200 - Nemetos - Nemedh - 1260
5) Megalaros - 64, 800 - Uergustios - Fergus - 1260
6) Daonos - 36, 000 - Iuocatus Erconos - Eochaidh Mac Erc 1260
7) Euedoraches- 64, 800 - Iuocatus Arimanos - Eochaidh Airemh 1260
8) Amempsinos - 36, 000 - Iuocatus Brestos - Eochaidh Bres - 1260
9) Opartes - 28, 800 - Nodons - Nuada - 1260
10) Xisuthros - 64, 800 - Mileto - Mile - 1260
I - EMNI or CUNES (Gemini) : ....... ....... ....... 2160 years ;
II - TARUOS or GARANAI (Taurus) : ....... ....... ....... 2160 years ;
III - AEDUS or QUTIOS/PUTIOS (Aries) : ... ....... ....... 2160 years ;
IIII - OGRONIOI or ESCOI (Pisces) : ...... ....... ....... 2160 years;
V - BRANNOS or UIROS (Aquarius) : ....... ....... ....... 2160 years ;
VI - ATTILUIS or MORISUCCOS/MORIMOCCOS, et GABROS (Capricorne) : 2160 yaers ;
VII - TRITIOS (Sagittarius) : ....... ....... ....... 2160 years ;
VIII - ARTOS (Scorpio) : ....... ....... ....... ....... 2160 years ;
VIIII- CIRCIOS/COSLOS ou CALIACOS (Balance) : ....... ....... 2160 years ;
X - ENIGENA/MAGULA ou ENCINIO/ESOXS (Vierge) : ...... ....... 2160 years ;
XI - ALCIS ou ELEMBOS (Lion) : ....... ....... ....... 2160 years ;
XII - EQOS/EPOS (Cancer) : ..... ....... .. ..... 2160 years ;
 Regarding a possible connection between the Semitic name Assur and the aryanic noun Asuras, for many specialists it is very difficult to admit more than a mere paronymy since the known chronology objects against such a borrowing by the Semitic Assyrian from Vedic, or Pre-Vedic terminology.
ca -2300 to -2053 Occupation by the Gutyum (or Gutti). Question: were they Aryas?
ca -2200 First epigraphic mention of Assur as a city-state.
-1742 to -1153 Occupation by the Kassi, kntm I.E.
ca -1700 to 1300 Mitanni kingdom created by the Hurri, "satem" I.E. = Aryas in the western neighbourhood of Assyria.
To support the assumption Assur||Asuras there are just two possibilities needing validation by competent scholars such as orientalists (and/or) indianists.
a. Yes provided that they made sure that the Gutyum/Gutti were aryanic in culture.
b. Yes provided that it were proven that 'Assur' was borrowed from the Sumerian language and that 'Asuras' belonged to the still unknown language of the 'Harappian' pre-aryanic inhabitants of the Hindus valley (and perhaps akin to the Dravidians) and would have been borrowed there by an Aryan presence. This unlikely hypothesis would have as only current support the convergences between Sumerian and Harappian civilisations (Joseph Monard (2001) commenting : Frawley, David, comment dated April 25, 2000. « Text
 Just < Iustus in Latin and Auentos in Celtic. « Text
 Dharma, ritual law or application, dedma\derma in Celtic. « Text
 Ariobindus, of noble birth in Celtic. « Text
 Varenne, Jean, Zarathustra et la tradition mazdéenne, p. 23-35. « Text
 The ritual nectar, Soma in Sanskrit, Haoma in Avestic, Ambrosia in Greek and Medus in Celtic. « Text
 Flamens and Brahmans, Oblation Carriers < flamenes in Latin, brahmana in Sanskrit, both from I.E. roots *blagmena or *beromena for the Proto-Celts. « Text
 Tocharian, from Greek Tokharoi (< Tacaros = ² Chiefly² ), were most likely Proto-Celts of Cimmerian stock as shown by the Old Chinese name Xiemmer. The Iranian speaking Scyths called themselves Skolots, and referred to as the Sakas in the Vedas. « Text
 Momies Gauloises, in La Recherche, #314, Novembre 1998. « Text
 Charles F. Herberger in The Role of the Sacred Cut in the Geometry of Stonehenge, has demonstrated how the Sacred Cut as determined in the Canon of Polykeitos and by Pythagorean geometry was used to map out sacred space. He successfully demonstrated how the ancients used geometric projections to build temples. Quoting from Nigel Pennick's Games of the Gods, who found proof of this in an ancient Indian text called Manasara Shilpa Shastra. The text, he says, "explains the laws of sacred geometry. This involved geometrical techniques for laying out a basic square which is then sub-divided into a sacred grid. Temples in ancient India were oriented to the cardinal directions by geometrical manipulations of a knotted rope". Neara Journal, vol. xxiix, no 3 & 4, 1995. « Text
 Hotar (Sanskrit), Zaotar (Avestic), or Gutuater (Celtic), which stands for "praise agent". « Text
 Varenne, Jean, Zarathushtra, p. 30. « Text
 The Tibetan Book Of The Dead. The Cosmography, p. 65. « Text
 Frawley, David. Letter dated August 29, 1998. « Text
 Erichton can also be punning with Erech; the usual spelling for Uruk, the Sumerian city. « Text
 The Rig Veda, selected, translated and annotated by Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty, 1.160 Vs 1-5, p. 203. « Text
 Septemtrio in Celtic, and Saptarshis in Sanskrit. In Latin, Septentrio, the plural Septem Triones stood for both Ursa Major and Ursa Minor together. In fact, Septendrio applied rather to Ursa Minor, as its Celtic parallel Sextensdirio. To avoid confusions, the Latins wrote either Septemtrio Maior or Septentrio Minor. « Text
 Arcturus, from Arktos Oura = "bear's tail". « Text
 The Seven Sisters were called Amba, Doula, Nitatoui, Abrayanti, Maghayanti, Varshayanti and Choupunika in Sanskrit. « Text
 Cailleach Beara, from Cailiaca Berias = "hag of the plain". Cailiaca = "shrewish" (hag) + Beria = (rather barren) "plain". Cailléach Beinne Bhric, from Cailiaca Bennia Brica is the "Hag of the Mountain". Cailléach Bolus, for Cailiaca Bolussas = "Hag of the Sloe" while Cailléach Corca Duibne for Cailiaca Crocnos Dubnis = "Hag of the Red Abyss" which puns with Dunia for "lady". « Text
 Manava, sons of Manu. « Text
 Maines in Irish, from Manioi = 'boys'. « Text
 From the root Dexsiutera, "the righteous". « Text
 From root Setantios, "the walker" alias Cuchulainn, root: Cu Culantios = "Culan's dog". « Text
 The Green Man, called Yspadadden Penkawr in Welsh, from root Spadonios Pennocauaros. « Text
 Tester, Jim, A History of Western Astrology, p. 161. « Text
 Abaris < ABAris = 'the water', or ABARE-os/-a/-on, ABARos/-a, adj. = 'quibbling', ABARon cn = 'matter'. « Text
 Berresford Ellis, P., Dictionary of Celtic Mythology, (Astrology) p. 35. « Text
 Berresford Ellis, Peter. Our Druid Cousins, Meet the brahmins of ancient Europe, the high caste of Celtic society.
in Hinduism Today, February 2000. « Text
 Called Uamba (Yoni) and Calgos (linga) in Celtic. « Text
 From root Tasgopeilas reta, "performing thought wheel". Other names for it are Labaron, Tarabara and Uecoreta. « Text
 The etymology of the name hints at a pun on a Celtic name with a Romanised rendering of a Greek/Aramaic name Bartholomaeus for "son of Ptolemy", that is, from Aramaic Bar for "son" and Greek Ptolemaios. Ptolemy (2nd century CE), a legendary astronomer, was with Hipparchus one of the greatest Greek astronomers. His true Celtic name was something like Partolos (War Party) punning with Prinniacos (Astrologer) Prinnionos (Astrology One) or Abaris maybe. « Text
 From Mumhan, early forms: Mumu, Muma. « Text
 From Tegos Donni, ² the House of Donn² , the gathering place of the deceased. « Text
 the Bolgos Uiroi or Bolgouiroi > Fir Bolg (the portly men), an alternate name for the Belgioi. Fir Gallion, from Fir Gaileôin, Uiroi, ² men² + Galloi (Gauls), and the Dumnonoi or Dumnouiroi > Fir Domnans (the Worldly). « Text
 The Toutai Deuas Danunas, also Aes Danunas, the Age of the Dananns (Danavas). « Text
 Hinting at a metaphysical concept: Duora = "door", for Duora Anamonos, "the doors of the souls". Also puns with Douocanos = "prophecy" and Dexouiotenia = "southern fire" etc., etc. « Text
 From Donnos, "the Dark one", and Lord of the Dead. « Text
 Berossos: Greek writing priest living in Persian Babylon in 280 BCE. Quoted From Joseph Campbell in Oriental Mythology, p. 119 « Text
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